TOE INSIGNIA OF THE ORDER OF THE STAR OF INDIA .
INTRODUCTION TO HERALDRY.
WITH NEARLY ONE THOUSAND ILLUSTRATIONS;
INCLUDING THE ARMS OF ABOUT FIVE HUNDRED DIFFERENT FAMILIES.
BY HUGH CLARK.
REVISED AND CORRECTED BY J. R. PLANCHE,
BOUGE-CBOIX PURSUIVANT OF ARMS.
BELL & DALDY, 6, YORK STREET, CO VENT GARDEN,
AND 186, FLEET STREET.
LONDON : PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, STAMFORD STRKET
A\L) CHARING CROSS.
CLARK'S " Introduction to Heraldry " has now been in
existence for upwards of eighty years, and gone through
seventeen editions. In presenting the eighteenth
to the Public, it is only necessary to say, that in
order to secure a continuance of such popularity, the
book has undergone complete revision ; and by the
omission of some exploded theories, and the correction
of a few erroneous opinions, been rendered, it is hoped,
a still more trustworthy Hand-book to an Art as useful
as it is ornamental to a Science, the real value of
which is daily becoming more apparent in this age of
progress and critical inquiry.
J. R. P.
ALPHABETICAL LIST OF HERALDIC TEEMS, 1ST ENGLISH,
FRENCH, AND LATIN 207
ARCHITECTURE AND HERALDRY 71
ARCHBISHOPS AND BISHOPS 228
ARMS, THE USE OF 2
ARMS, THE ABUSE OF 3
ARMS, ASSUMPTIVE 6
ARMS OF ALLIANCE ..... 7
ARMS OF ADOPTION . * 7
ARMS OF A BACHELOR ....... 59
ARMS OF A BISHOP ....... 60
ARMS OF A BARONET ....... 61
ARMS OF A COMMONER AND LADY ..... 62
ARMS OF COMMUNITY ....... 6
ARMS OF CONCESSION ....... 8
ARMS, CANTING ........ 9
AMIS, CLASSES OF 5
ARMS OF DOMINION ....... 5
ARMS OF A HUSBAND AND TWO WIVES .... 57
ARMS OF AN HEIRESS AND CO-HEIRESS .... 59
ARMS OF A KNIGHT OF THE GARTER AND LADY MARRYING
A COMMONER ........ 60
ARMS OF A DOWAGER OR MAIDEN LADY .... 58
ARMS OF A MAID ........ 50
ARMS OF PATRONAGE ....... 6
ARMS OF PRETENSION ....... 5
ARMS PATERNAL AND HEREDITARY . . 7
ARMS QUARTERLY .... 60
ARMS ROYAL . - . 222
ARMS OF SUCCESSION ... ... 7
ARMS OF A "WIDOW ... ... 58
ARMS OF A WIDOW AND HEIRESS . . . . .58
ARMS OF A WIFE AND TWO HUSBANDS .... 59
BADGES ......... 65
BATH, ORDER OF THE ....... 240
BISHOPS ......... 228
BLAZONING, RULES OF . . . . . . .31
BLAZONING OF ANIMALS ...... 33
BLAZONING OF BIRDS ....... 34
BLAZONING OF CHARGES 32
BLAZONING OF HEAVENLY BODD2S 36
BLAZONING OF FISHES . . . . . . .35
BLAZONING OF ORDINARIES ...... 32
BLAZONING OF MAN AND HIS PARTS .... 37
BLAZONING OF TREES AND VEGETABLES . . .36
BORDERS . . . . . . . . .17
CHARGES ......... 20
CHARGES, THEIR VARIOUS HERALDIC TERMS ... 25
COLLEGE OF ARMS ....... 272
COLOURS . . . . . . . . .11
COMPTROLLER OF THE HOUSEHOLD ..... 278
CREST . . . .65
CROSSES . . . . . . . . .19
DICTIONARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS . . . . .81
DUKE .......... 223
EARL MARSHAL ........ 269
ESCUTCHEON, DESCRIPTION OF 9
ESCUTCHEON, POINTS OF THE .10
EXAMPLES OF BLAZONRY ...... 37
EXTERIOR ORNAMENTS OF THE ESCUTCHEON ... 62
FURS .......... 12
GARTER K1NG-OF-ARMS ...... 236, 272
GARTER, ORDER OF THE ...... 232
GENTLEMAN AT ARMS . . ... . . . 278
GREAT OFFICERS OF STATE AND ROYAL HOISEHOLD . . 263
GROOM OF THE STOLE ....... 277
HANOVERIAN GUELPHIC ORDER ..... 243
HATCHMENTS, EXPLANATION OF . . . . 69
HELMETS . . . . . . . . .62
HERALDIC ABBREVIATIONS 48
HERALDRY, INTRODUCTION TO I
HERALDS' COLLEGE, AND HERALDS ..... 272
HERALDRY IN CONJUNCTION WITH ARCHITECTURE . . 71
KNIGHTHOOD, ORDERS OF, IN ENGLAND .... 232
KNIGHTS BANNERETS 246
KNIGHTS BACHELORS .... 247
LORD HIGH TREASURER ....... 264
LORD GREAT CHAMBERLAIN ...... 265
LORD CHAMBERLAIN OF THE HOUSEHOLD .... 276
LORD HIGH CONSTABLE ....... 268
LORD STEWARD OF THE HOUSEHOLD . . . 275
LORD HIGH STEWARD . . ... . . . 263
LORD ALMONER ..... 278
LORD HIGH CHANCELLOR ...... 263
LORD PRESIDENT OF THE COUNCIL ..... 265
LORD PRIVY SEAL ....... 265
LORD HIGH ADMIRAL 274
LYON KING-OF-ARMS . ' . . . 273
MANTLING ......... 63
MARQUIS ......... 225
MARSHALLING ........ 56
MARSHALLING BORDERED COATS ..... 62
MASTER OF THE HORSE ....... 277
MOTTO ......... 66
NOBILITY AND GENTRY, THE DIFFERENT DEGREES . .213
PARTITION LINES . . 13
PRECEDENCY ...... 255
PRECEDENCY OF MEN, TABLE OF 258
PRECEDENCY OF WOMEN, TABLE OF .... 261
PRINCE OF WALES ...* > ^
PEIVILEGES OF PEEKS 230
PRIVY COUNCIL 275
PUESUIVANTS ........ 272
RANK AND NOBILITY, MANUAL OF . . . . .213
EOYAL TITLES ........ 219
RULES OF BLAZONING . . . . . . .31
SECTEEAEIES OF STATE 274
STAE OF INDIA, OEDEE OF THE ..... 245
ST. MICHAEL AND ST. GEOEGE, OEDEES OF ... 244
ST. PATEICK, OEDEE OF 242
SUBOEDIN ABIES . . . . . . . .16
SUPPOETEES ......... 66
THISTLE, OEDEE OF THE . . . . . .242
TINCTUEES AND FUES . . . . . . .11
TEEASUEEE OF THE HOUSEHOLD . . . . .277
ULSTEE KING-OF-ARHS ... ... 273
VISCOUNT . 227
YEOMAN . 252
YEOMEN OF THE GUAED . 279
TTEEALPIC devices, truly so called, make their first
XI appearance in Europe in the middle of the twelfth
century; and about one hundred years later we find
Heraldry has become a science in high repute, without
our being able to trace its intermediate progress, or
discover the names of those who first laid down its
laws, or subsequently promulgated them. The earliest
Heraldic document, of which even a copy has come
down to us, is a roll of arms, that is to say, a catalogue
of the armorial bearings of the King of England, and
the principal barons, knights, &c., in this country in
the reign of Henry III., and, from internal evidence,
supposed to have been originally compiled between the
years 1240-1245. This transcript was made by Glover,
Somerset Herald, in 1586, and is preserved in the
College of Arms. Other rolls are to be found, both
there and in the British Museum, of nearly the same
date, but none earlier, and no work explanatory of the
science has been yet discovered of a period anterior to
2 Introduction to Heraldry.
the reign of Edward III. It is not. therefore, our
intention to notice any of the various theories, either
ancient or modern, which have been advanced to
account for the origin of coat-armour, as they are
purely speculative the most rational resting on no
contemporary authority. We shall confine ourselves to
the fact that in the reign of Henry III. armorial
ensigns had become hereditary, marks of cadency dis-
tinguished the various members of a family, and the
majority of the present Heraldic terms were already
THE USE OP ARMS
at that period was to distinguish persons and property,
and record descent and alliance, and no modern in-
vention has yet been found to supersede it. For this
reason alone, as we have remarked elsewhere, of all
ancient usages it is one of the least likely to become
obsolete. Hundreds of persons may be entitled to the
same initials, may possess precisely the same name;
but only the members of a particular family can law-
fully bear certain armorial ensigns, and the various
branches of that family have their separate differences
to distinguish one from the other. After the lapse of
centuries, the date of a building, or the name of its
founder or ancient possessor, may be ascertained at the
present day, through the accidental preservation of a
sculptured coat of arms or heraldic encaustic tile ; and
the careful study of early rolls of arms, enables us to
discover matrimonial alliances and family connexions,
of which no written record has been found, and thereby
not only to complete the very imperfect genealogies of
Introduction to Heraldry. 3
many of the bravest and wisest of our English nobility
and gentry, but also to account for sundry acts, both
public and private, the motives for which have been
misunderstood, or altogether unknown to the biographer
or the historian.
A few words on
THE ABUSE OP ARMS.
In the middle ages, it began by an unhappy ambition
in the heralds to exalt their science in the eyes of the
commonalty ; and a less excusable desire to pander to
the vanity of those who had inherited ancient armorial
devices. On charges simple enough at the time they
were assumed, the most preposterous stories were
founded. The wildest legends, the most unsupported
assertions were adopted and exaggerated, if they could
by any possibility be connected with the arms on the
shield, or the badge on the standard, till the characters,
which were originally so clear that those who ran
might read, were mystified and misrepresented beyond
our power to decipher them by the light which has
been left us.
With the increase of education, the absurdities be-
came more and more apparent, and at length the study
of Heraldry was pretty nearly abandoned as a silly and
useless pursuit. The critical spirit of archaeology has,
within the last twenty years, done much to correct the
prejudice ; and the curious and important information to
be derived from the study of armorial devices is rapidly
becoming appreciated by even the general public.
The abuse of arms in modern days is constantly ex-
hibited in the crests engraved on the plate and seals,
or stamped on the note-paper, of thousands of persons
4 Introduction to Heraldry.
utterly unentitled, by ancient descent or modern grant,
to such insignia.
An erroneous impression, carefully fostered by cer-
tain advertising seal-engravers, exists amongst the
public, that all persons possessing the same name have
a right to bear the same arms. Mr. Jones considers
himself justified in bearing the crest of Viscount Rane-
lagh ; Mr. Brown that of the Marquis of Sligo. Mr.
Smith appropriates to himself the coat of Lord Car-
rington, and Mr. Robinson sees no just cause or im-
pediment to prevent his displaying that of Earl de
Grey and Ripon.
There are instances in which, not content with the
paternal coat of their noble namesake, persons have also
assumed the quarterings they have found marshalled
with it, and we remember having seen a baronet's
arms appropriated thus wholesale, including the distin-
guishing mark of his rank, the badge of Ulster ! Surely
even those who affect the greatest contempt for Heraldry,
will admit that if arms are to be borne at all, it should
be according to the laws of arms ; and that if the dis-
play of them be an empty vanity, it is a less creditable
vanity to parade as our own those which belong of
right to others.
The most useful purpose of Heraldry is also defeated
by this silly practice, as identification of family or
property is impossible under such circumstances. Nor
is it scarcely possible for the more scrupulous, who
design coats or crests for themselves, to avoid inter-
fering, more or less, with recorded arms, either ancient
or modern, and thus equally, though more innocently,
contributing to the confusion.
Another abuse of arms is the common custom of
Introduction to Heraldry. 5
wives having their note-paper stamped with the crests
appertaining to, or assumed by, their husbands. No
lady is entitled to a crest (see under CRESTS), and
the display of one by a female of any rank is an
CLASSES OF ARMS.
Arms are usually divided by modern authorities into
1. Arms of Dominion.
2. Arms of Pretension.
3. Arms of Community.
4. Arms of Assumption.
5. Arms of Patronage.
6. Arms of Succession.
7. Arms of Alliance.
8. Arms of Adoption.
9. Arms Paternal and Here-
10. Arms of Concession.
11. Canting or Allusive Arms.
These may fairly be reduced to nine, and even less,
as we shall show in our description of them.
ARMS OF DOMINION
are those which emperors and kings constantly bear,
and which, being annexed to their territories, are
stamped on their coins, and displayed on their colours,
standards, banners, coaches, seals, &c.
ARMS OF PRETENSION
are those of kingdoms, provinces, or territories to which
a prince or lord pretends to have some claim, and which
he therefore adds to his own arms, although the land
be possessed by some other prince or lord. Thus, the
kings of England quartered the arms of France with
those of England from the year 1330 (when Edward
III. laid claim to that kingdom, as son to Isabella,
sister of Charles the Handsome, who died without
issue) till the year 1801, although at the latter date all
6 Introduction to Heraldry.
pretensions to France on the part of England had long
ceased. On the union of this kingdom with Ireland,
the arms of France were first omitted, and the ensign
of Ireland inserted in their stead. In like manner
Spain quarters the arms of Portugal and Jerusalem;
and Denmark those of Sweden.
ARMS OF COMMUNITY
are those of bishoprics, cities, universities, academies,
societies, companies, and other bodies corporate.
In the days of chivalry, according to Sir John Feme,
it was considered lawful that the victor, upon making
captive any gentleman of higher degree than him-
self, might assume the shield of arms of his prisoner;
and the acquiring of coat-armour by such feats of
valour was esteemed highly honourable. As this prac-
tice has long been disused, if indeed it ever existed,
these so-called arms of assumption may be struck out
of the list.
ARMS OF PATRONAGE
are, in one sense, such as governors of provinces, lords
of manors, patrons of benefices, add to their family
arms, as a token of their rights and jurisdiction ; in
another, they are part of the arms of such lords,
assumed by and added to the paternal arms of persons
holding lands in fee under them. Thus, as the earls
of Chester bore garbs, many gentlemen of the county
bore the same ensign ; and numerous instances of this
kind of bearing may still be adduced in England,
Scotland, and, indeed, in most parts of Europe.
Introduction to Heraldry. 1
ARMS OF SUCCESSION
are those taken up by such as inherit certain lands,
manors, &c., either by will, entail, or donation ; and which
they bear instead of, or quarter with, their own arms.
ARMS OF ALLIANCE
are such as, when heiresses marry into families, are
taken up by their issue, to show their descent pater-
nal and maternal ; and by this means the memory of
many ancient and noble families, extinct in the male
line, is preserved and conveyed to posterity; which
is one of the principal reasons of marshalling several
coats, pertaining to distict families in one shield,
ARMS OF ADOPTION.
Already described as arms of succession. They are
called " of adoption " because the last of a family may by
will adopt a stranger to possess his name, estate, and
arms, and thereby continue the name and coat of his
family in the world after his decease. The present
custom for persons adopted, is to apply to the Crown
for a Eoyal license to empower them to fulfil the will
of the testator, or to the Parliament for an Act.
ARMS PATERNAL AND HEREDITARY
are such as are transmitted from the first possessor
to his son, grandson, great-grandson, &c. In such
case they are arms of a perfect and complete nobility,
begun in the grandfather, or great-grandfather (as
heralds say), growing in the son, complete in the
grandson, or rather great-grandson; from which rises
the distinction of gentleman of blood in the grandson,
and, in the great-grandson, gentleman of ancestry.
8 Introduction to Heraldry.
AKMS OF CONCESSION
are augmentations granted by the sovereign, of part
of his ensigns or regalia, to such persons as he pleaseth
to honour therewith. Henry VIII. honoured the arms
of Thomas Manners (whom he created Earl of Kut-
land) with an augmentation, on account of his being
descended from a sister of King Edward IV. His
paternal arms were, or, two bars azure, a chief gules.
The augmentations were, the chief quarterly, azure and
gules ; on the first, two fleurs de Us in fess, or ; on the
second, a lion passant gardant. See Plate XI. n. 3. The
same monarch also granted, as an augmentation of
honour, to Lady Jane Seymour, a pile gulss, charged with
three lions passant gardant, or, to be marshalled with
her paternal coat ; and many similar instances might
be adduced of our sovereigns giving special proof of
their favour by granting arms of concession by their
royal warrant, recorded in the College of Arms. But
these augmentations did not always consist of part of
the royal bearings. Thus, the arms granted in 1692 to
Sir Cloudesley Shovel were gules, a chevron ermine, in
chief two crescents argent, in base afleur de Us or; to denote
three victories gained by him, two over the Turks, and
one over the French : Lord Heathfield was permitted to
assume a fortress, to commemorate his gallant defence
of Gibraltar. The arms of many other of our heroes,
naval and military, as Nelson, Collingwood, Wel-
lington, may also be referred to, as justly bearing these
augmentations of honour (called by the French heralds
armes de concession), although we cannot too strongly
express our disapprobation of the wretched taste and
unheraldic character of the augmentations themselves.
Introduction to Heraldry. 9
Canting or allusive arms are coats of arms whose
figures allude to the names, professions, &c., of the
bearer ; as a trevet, for Trevet ; three herrings, for
Herring; a camel, for Camel; three covered cups, for
Butler ; a pine tree, for Pine ; three arches, for Arches ;
three harrows, for Harrow, &c. Such arms have been
ignorantly described by some writers as of an inferior
order, whereas there can scarcely be a greater proof of
their antiquity and highly honourable character.
We will now proceed to the study of the points of
the escutcheon, metals, colours, furs, partition lines, ordi-
naries, charges, and distinctions of houses.
It is highly necessary, before a person attempt to
blazon a coat of arms, that he should be well acquainted
with the terms and rules laid down in the following
tables, which may be acquired by a little practice and
The shield or escutcheon (from the Latin word
scutum, a hide, of which shields are supposed to have
been originally made,) represents the defensive imple-
ment of that name used in war, and on which armorial
ensigns were originally borne. The ground or surface
of it is called the field, and here are depicted the figures
which make up the coat of arms.
The field of the escutcheon is divided into nine
integral parts, used to mark the position of the bear-
ings. They are termed the points of the escutcheon,
and are clearly illustrated in Table I.
It should be particularly observed, that the side of
the escutcheon which is opposite to the left hand of
10 Introduction to Heraldry.
the person looking at it is the dexter or right side
of the escutcheon, and that opposite the right hand
the sinister or left side. Great care should also be
taken to understand the points; for the very same
figures placed differently constitute distinct and dif-
POINTS OF THE ESCUTCHEON.
side of the
side of the
A Dexter chief.
B Middle chief.
C Sinister chief.
D Honour point.
E Fess point.
F Nombril point.
G Dexter base.
H Middle base.
I Sinister base.
Note. The chief is the top or chief part of the escutcheon,
marked A, B, C ; the base is the lower part of the escutcheon,
marked G, H, I.
Introduction to Heraldry. 11
TABLE II. (PLATE II.)
TINCTURES AND FURS.
THE tinctures or colours generally used in the
science of heraldry are red, blue, black, green, and
purple ; termed in this science gules, azure, sable, vert,
and purpure. Yellow and white, termed or and argent,
are metals :
Or .... Gold, or yellow.
Argent . . . Silver, or white.
Gules . . . Bed
Azure . . . Blue.
Sable . . . Black.
Vert. . . . Green.
Purpure. . . Purple.
Colours and metals, when engraved, are known by
dots and lines ; as OR, the metal gold, is known by
dots ; ARGENT, which signifies white, or the white metal
silver, is always left plain; GULES, is expressed by
lines perpendicular from top to bottom; AZURE, by
horizontal lines from side to side; SABLE, by hori-
zontal and perpendicular lines crossing each other ;
VERT, by diagonal lines from right to left ; PURPURE, by
diagonal lines from left to right. See the examples
Table II (Plate II.) S. Petrasancta, an Italian herald,
about two centuries ago, is said to have been the first
who thought of expressing the tinctures by lines and
English heralds admit of two other colours, namely,
orange, called tenne, and blood-colour, called sanguine ;
12 Introduction to Heraldry.
though their is no instance of their occurrence in
British bearings. If used, tenne should be expressed by
diagonal lines from left to right, crossed by horizontal
lines ; and sanguine, by lines crossing each other
diagonally from left to right and from right to left.
Furs are not only used for the linings of robes and
garments of state, the linings of the mantle, and other
ornaments of the shield, but also in the coat-armours
themselves. They originally were limited to ermine and
vair, but later heralds have added ermines, erminois,
erminites, pean, vair-en-point, counter-vair, potent-counter -
potent. All these may be seen under each head in the
Dictionary of Terms; but for illustration we have
selected only the most common in use : viz.,
Ermine, Ermines, Erminois,
Vair, Counter-vair, Potent.
ERMINE is described by sable spots on a white field,
the tail terminating in three hairs : see Table II., n. 1 .
ERMINES is a field black, with white spots, n. 2.
ERMINOIS is a field gold, with black spots, n. 3.
VAIR is white and blue, represented by figures of
small escutcheons, ranged in a line, so that the lose
argent is opposite to the base azure, n. 4.
COUNTER-VAIR is when escutcheons of the same
colour are placed. base against base and point against
point, n. 5.
POTENT-COUNTER-POTENT is a field covered with figures
like crutch-heads, termed potents counter placed, n. 6,
potent being the old word for a crutch.
Introduction to Heraldry. 13
TABLE III. (PLATE III.)
SHIELDS are divided by lines, called partition lines,
which are distinguished by different names, according
to their different forms. These lines are either straight
or curved. The straight lines are perpendicular, hori-
zontal, diagonal dexter, and diagonal sinister; termed
per pale, per fess, per bend, &c., as explained below.
The shield is said to be party, or divided, by these
lines ; as thus:
PARTY PER PALE, or impaled is the field divided by
a perpendicular line, as PI. in., n. 1.
PARTY PER BEND is a field divided by a diagonal
line from the dexter chief to the sinister base, as n. 2.
PARTY PER BEND Sinister is precisely the reverse of
the above ; the partition line running from the sinister
chief to the dexter base, instead of from the dexter to
PARTY PER FESS is a field equally divided by a hori-
zontal line, as n. 3.
PARTY PER CHEVRON is a field divided by such a
line as helps to make the chevron, as n. 4.
PARTY PER CROSS, or quarterly, is a field divided by
two lines, the one perpendicular, the other horizontal,
crossing each other in the centre of the field, as n. 5.
PARTY PER SALTIRE, is a field divided by two diago-
nal lines, dexter and sinister, crossing each other in the
centre of the field, as n. 6.
14 Introduction to Heraldry.
The curved lines of partition are the engrailed, in-
vecked, wavy or undee, nebule, embattled, raguly, indented,
dancette, and dove-tail. See examples conspicuously
engraved in PL m.
TABLE IV. (PLATE IV.)
ORDINARIES are certain charges which, by their ordinary
and frequent use in a shield of arms, are become most
essential to the science of Heraldry : viz., the chief, pale,
bend, bend sinister, fess, bar, chevron, cross, and saltire ;
with their diminutives or subordinaries, the fillet, pallet,
endorse, garter, cost, ribbon, baton, closet, &c., as in PI. iv.
THE CHIEF is formed by a horizontal line, and con-
tains in depth the third of the field, as n. 1. Its diminu-
tive is termed a, fillet, and does not exceed one-fourth of
the chief. The line may be indented, wavy, &c. ; but
this must be noticed in the blazonry.
The PALE consists of two perpendicular lines, drawn
from the top to the base of the shield, and occupying
one-third of its centre, as n. 2.
The pale has two diminutives the half of the pale is
called a pallet, as n. 3 ; and the half of the pallet is
called an endorse, as n. 4.
The BEND is formed by two parallel lines, drawn
from the dexter chief to the sinister base, as n. 5. It
contains a fifth part of the shield in breadth, if un-
charged, and a third part if charged.
The bend has four diminutives, the bendlet, n. 6 ; the
garter, n. 7 ; the cost (called when in pairs cottices), n. 8 ;
Introduction to Heraldry. 15
and ribbon, which is always couped, or cut off straight,
at the ends, n. 9.
The BEND SINISTER, which passes diagonally from
the sinister chief to the dexter base of the shield, as n.
10. The Bend Sinister has two diminutives ; the scarp,
which is half the bend, as n. 11 ; and the baton, which
is half of the scarp, and couped at the ends, as n. 12.
The FESS is formed by two horizontal lines across
the shield : it occupies the third part of the field, and
is always confined to the centre, as n. 13.
The BAR is formed of two horizontal lines, and con-
tains the fifth part of the field, as n. 14. The Bar is
distinguished from the Fess, by being never borne
single : it has two diminutives ; the closet, which is
half the bar, n. 15 ; and the barrulet, which is half the
closet, n. 16.
The CHEVRON is formed of two lines placed in the
form of a pyramid, like two rafters of a house joined
together, and descending in form of a pair of com-
passes to the extremities of the shield, n. 17. The
Chevron has two diminutives ; the chevronel, which is
half the chevron, n. 18 ; and the couple-close, which is
half the chevronel, n. 19.
The CROSS. The Cross is formed by the meeting of
two perpendicular with two horizontal lines near the
fees point, where they make four right angles : the lines
are not drawn throughout, but, discontinued the breadth
of the cross, n. 20.
The SALTIRE is formed by the bend-dexter and
bend-sinister crossing each other at right angles, n. 21.
The PILE is composed of two lines which form a long
wedge, n. 22.
The QUARTER is formed of two lines, one perpen-
16 Introduction to Heraldry.
dicular, the other horizontal, taking up one-fourth of
the field, and is always placed in the chief, n. 23.
The CANTON is a square figure like the quarter, but
possessing only the third part of the chief, n. 24.
TABLE V. (PLATE V.)
AMONG OTHER STJB-ORDINABIES ARE THE FOLLOWING I
A GYRON is a triangular figure, composed of two lines,
one diagonally from the dexter chief angle to the centre
of the shield ; the other drawn horizontally from the
dexter side of the shield, and meeting the other line in
the centre of the field, as n. 1.
FLANCHES are formed by two circular lines, and are
always borne double, as n. 2.
The LABEL, though used as a distinction of houses,
is placed by Holme as an ordinary, from its being
variously borne and charged, n. 3.
The ORLE is an inner border of the same shape as
the escutcheon, but does not touch the extremities of
the shield, the field being seen within and round it on
both sides, as n. 4.
The TRESSURE is a diminutive of the Orle, half its
breadth, and is generally borne flory and couuter-flory,
The FRET is composed of six pieces, two of which
form a scdtire, and the other four a mascle, which is
placed in the centre. The saltire pieces must be inter-
laced over and under the pieces that form the mascle,
as n. 6.
The INESOUTCHEON is a small escutcheon borne
Introduction to Heraldry. 17
within the shield, in the middle of a coat, or in chief.
If there be more than one in a coat, they are usually
called escutcheons, n. 7.
The CHAPLET is always composed of four roses only,
all the other parts being leaves, n. 8.
A BORDER or Bordure is a bearing that goes all round
and parallel to the boundary of the shield in form of a
hem, and contains the fifth part of the field, n. 9. When a
border is plain, as in the example, it need not be termed
plain, as it is always understood so in the science ; viz.,
argent, a border azure ; but if the border be engrailed,
indented, &c., you must express it : viz., argent, a border
engrailed azure. See the two examples, n. 10 and 11.
In blazon, borders always give place to the chief,
the quarter, and the canton ; as, for example, argent, a
border gules, a chief azure ; therefore, the chief is placed
over the border, see PI. xxxix., n. 2. So that in coats
charged with either a chief, quarter, or canton, the
border goes round the field until it touches them, and
there finishes, see PI. xxxix., n. 3 ; but in respect to all
other ordinaries, the border passes over them, PI. xxxix.,
In a coat which has a border impaled with another,
be it either the man's or the woman's, the border must
terminate at the impaled line, see PI. xxxix., n. 5. This
method is also to be observed in impaling a coat that
has either a single or double tressure, as PL xxxix., n. 6.
A BORDER ENGRAILED. This border is bounded by
small semicircles, the points of which enter the field, as
A BORDER INDENTED is the same in shape as the
partition line indented, n. 11.
A BORDER QUARTERLY is a border divided into four
18 Introduction to Heraldry.
equal parts by a perpendicular and horizontal line, as
A BORDER GOBONY or company is a border composed
of one row of squares (of two colours), and no more, as
A BORDER COUNTER-COMPONY is a border composed
of two rows of squares, as n. 14.
A BORDER CHECKY is a border composed of three
rows of squares, as n. 15.
A BORDER VAIR. Vair is represented by the figures
of little escutcheons reversed, ranged in a line so
that the base argent is opposite to the base azure, as
PALY is a field divided into four, six, or more (even
number of) parts, by perpendicular lines, consisting of
two colours ; the first beginning with metal, and the last
consisting of colour, as n. 17.
BENDY is a field divided into four, six, or more (equal)
parts diagonally, from the dexter to the sinister, or
from sinister to dexter, and consisting of two colours,
as n. 18.
BARRY is a field divided by horizontal lines, into four,
six, or more (equal) parts, and consisting of two tinc-
tures, as n. 19.
BARRY PILY of eight pieces or and gules, as n. 20.
In paly, bendy, and barry, the number of divisions is
always even, and to be specified ; as four, six, eight, ten,
or twelve, viz., Paly of six, barry of six, bendy of six
barry pily of eight, or and gules. See the examples,
LOZENGY is a field or bearing covered with lozenges
of different tinctures alternately, as lozengy, argent and
azure, n. 21.
Introduction to Heraldry. 19
CHECKY is a field or bearing covered with small
squares of different tinctures alternately, as n. 22.
When on ordinaries, it always consists of three or more
GYRONNY is a field divided into six, eight, ten, or
twelve triangular parts, of two or more different tinc-
tures, and the points all meeting in the centre of the
field, as n. '23.
FRETTY consists of eight, ten, or more pieces, each
passing to the extremity of the shield, and interlacing
each other, as n. 24.
TABLE VI. (PLATE VI.)
A CROSS. The Cross is one of the ordinaries before
mentioned. It is borne indented, engrailed, &c., as
well as plain ; but when plain, as the example, n. 1, a
cross only is mentioned, which is understood to be plain.
A CROSS MOLINE signifies a cross which turns round
both ways at the extremities, as n. 2.
A CROSS FLORY. This signifies the ends of the cross
to terminate in fleurs-de-lis, as n. 3.
A CROSS PATONCE. This cross terminates like the
bottom of the fleurs-de-lis, as n. 4.
A CROSS POTENT. This cross terminates like the
head of a crutch, which anciently was called a potent ,
as n. 5.
A CROSS PATTEE, or spread out, is one which is
small in the centre, and so goes on widening to the
ends, which are very broad, as n. 6.
A CROSS AVELANE, so termed from its parts re-
20 Introduction to Heraldry.
sembling the nux avellance, filbert, or hazel-nut, as
A CROSS BOTONNE, or budded, is so termed because
its extremities resemble buds of flowers. The French,
with greater propriety, call it croix trejflee, on account of
its nearer resemblance to the trefoil ; n. 8.
A CROSS POMMEE signifies a cross with a ball at each
end ; from pomme, an apple. See n. 9.
A CROSS CROSLET is a cross crossed again at the
extremities, at a small distance from each of the ends,
as n. 10.
A CROSS CROSLET FITCHY. So termed when the
under-limb of the cross ends in a sharp point, as
A CROSS OF FOUR PHEONS. That is, four Pheons in
Cross, their points all meeting in the centre, as n. 12.
A CROSS OF FOUR ERMINE SPOTS, or four Ermine
Spots in Cross, their tops meeting in the centre point,
as n. 13.
A CROSS MILRINE. So termed as its form is like
the mill-ink, which carries the millstone, and is per-
forated as that is. See n. 14, 15.
A CROSS KAYONNANT is a cross from the angles 6f
which issue rays, as n. 16.
CHARGES are any figures whatever borne in an
A LOZENGE. The shape is the same with that of a
pane of glass in old casements, as n. 17. In this form
the arms of maidens and widows should be borne. The
true proportion of the Lozenge is to have its width
three-fourths of its height.
Introduction to Heraldry. 21
A FUSIL. The Fusil differs from the Lozenge, being
longer and more acute. See the difference in n. 17 and
18. Note. If a Fusil is four inches in height, it must
be but one inch and three-quarters in width, and so in
proportion to any other height.
The MASCLE is formed like the Lozenge, but is
exactly square, and the centre is perforated, as example,
A WATER BOUGET was a vessel anciently used by
soldiers for carrying water in long marches, n. 20.*
A TREFOIL, or three-leaved grass, as n. 21.
A QUATREFOIL, or four-leaved grass, as n. 22.
A GINQUEFOIL, or five-leaved grass. This charge is
very frequent in armoury, n. 23.
A ROSE in Heraldry is always represented full-blown,
with its leaves expanded, seeded in the middle, with
five green barbs, as n. 24.
TABLE VII. (PLATE VII.)
A MULLET, n. 1. Some have confounded stars and
mullets together, which is easily rectified, by allowing
mullets to consist of five points, and stars to be of six,
eight, or more points.
An ESTOILE, or star of six waved points. See n. 2.
A GAL-TRAP ; an instrument of iron composed of
four points, so that whichever way it lies on the
* There are various forms of it ; the one here referred to,
though strictly heraldic, bearing little resemblance to the article
it professes to represent.
22 Introduction to Heraldry.
ground, one point is always upwards ; they were used to
impede the enemy's cavalry in passing fords, morasses,
&c. See n. 3.
A PHEON is the iron part of a dart with a barbed
head, n. 4.
An ANNULET, or Eing. See n. 5.
A CRESCENT, or Half Moon, has the horns turned
upwards. See n. 6.
An INCRESCENT is a Half Moon with the horns
turned to the dexter side. See n. 7.
A DECRESCENT is a Half Moon with the horns turned
to the sinister side. See n. 8.
A CHESS-ROOK, a piece used in the game of chess, as
A FOUNTAIN is drawn as a roundle barry wavy of six,
Argent and Azure, as n. 10.
A REST. This figure by some is termed a rest for a
horseman's lance ; others describe it as a musical instru-
ment called a clarion, n. 11.
A PORTCULLIS ; used in fortifying the gateways of a
city, town, or castle, as n. 12.
A MANCHE; an old-fashioned sleeve of the 12th
century, with long cuff dependant, as n.' 13. This
charge is represented in forms as various as that of the
A GARB signifies a sheaf of any kind of grain, as
n. 14. If it be a sheaf of wheat, it is sufficient to
say a garb ; but if of any other grain, it must be ex-
A MARTLET ; a bird shaped like a martin, but repre-
sented without legs, as n. 15.
BAR-GEMEL signifies two bars placed near and
parallel to each other, as n. 16. Note. Gemels are
Introduction to Heraldry. 23
much narrower than bars, and are always borne in
A CATHERINE-WHEEL ; named from St. Catherine,
whose limbs were broken in pieces by its iron teeth,
An ESCARBUNCLE ; supposed to represent the rays of a
precious stone (the carbuncle), and drawn by the ancient
heralds, as n. 18. It is composed of an annulet in the
centre, from which issue eight or more sceptres.
A PELICAN. The Pelican in heraldry is generally
represented with her wings indorsed, her neck em-
bowed, and pecking at her breast, as n. 19. When in
her nest, feeding her young, it is termed in blazon, a
Pelican in her piety.
A PHOENIX is an imaginary bird, like an eagle in
shape, and in heraldry is always represented in flames,
so that seldom more of the bird is seen than what is in
the example, n. 20.
An ANTELOPE ; a well-known slender-limbed animal
of the deer kind, with two straight taper horns : it is
drawn according to nature, as n. 21.
AN HERALDIC ANTELOPE. This imaginary animal is
represented with a body like a stag, with a unicorn's
tail, a tusk issuing from the tip of the nose, a row of
tufts down the back part of the neck, and the like tufts
on his tail, chest, and thighs, as n. 22.
A COCKATRICE is also a chimerical figure ; its wings,
beak, legs, comb, wattles, and spurs, partake of the
fowl, and its body and tail of the dragon, as n. 23.
A WYVERN. This figure also is of heraldic crea-
tion : it differs from the cockatrice in its head, and is
without a comb, wattles, or spurs, as n. 24, and is dis-
tinguished from the dragon by only having two legs.
24 Introduction to Heraldry.
TABLE VIII. (PLATE VIII.)
A DRAGON is an imaginary beast with four legs,
drawn by heralds as the example, n. 1.
A HARPY is a poetical monster, composed of the
head and breasts of a woman, joined to the body of a
vulture, as n. 2.
An HERALDIC TIGER, so termed from being different
from the tiger of nature, owes its origin to the ancients,
who represented it like the example, n. 3.
BILLETS are oblong squares, and are generally sup-
posed to be letters made up in the form of the example,
, n. 4, or blocks of wood, as there is an instance of a
Billet raguly in the coat of Billettes and of Billety in
that of de la Plaunch.
A CANNET ; a term for a duck without beak or feet,
as n. 5. This is only used in foreign arms.
An ALLERION is an eagle displayed, without beak or
feet, as n. 6.
A WELK ; the name of a shell fish. See n. 7.
GUTTES signify drops of anything liquid, and are
represented as n. 8. As these drops differ in colour,
they receive different terms. Being much used in
English heraldry, it is necessary to introduce them ;
p Or, 1 13 ( Guttes d'or, 1 J3 f Drops of gold,
Argent, S Guttes d'eau, Drops of water,
Vert, ! -2 J Guttes d 'olive, I 'S J D r P s f oil f olive,
Azure, ', 2 j Guttes de larmes, | <s ^ j Drops of tears,
Sable, I >, | Guttes de poix, g | Drops of pitch,
( Gules, J J ( Guttes de sang, j | ^ Drops of blood.
Introduction to Heraldry. 25
The French heralds use none of the above variations,
but say gutte (z. e., dropped) of such a colour.
KOUNDLES are round figures ; if of metal, as the
bezant and plate, they are to be flat ; if of colour, they
are drawn globular, and termed according to the colour
or metal they are composed of. See PI. vni., n. 9 to
15 ; viz.
fOr, \ ^ f Bezants,
Argent, | I Plates,
Vert, g I Pommes,
Azure, ^ "o ^ Hurts,
% | Torteaux
If there be two, three, or more in a coat, counter-
changed, being of any colour or metal, they retain the
name of roundle. Note. Foreigners term the round
figures, when of metal, bezants ; when of colour, tor-
teaux; viz., Bezants (for, or d' argent, torteaux de gules,
d'azure, de sable, &c.
CHARGES, AND THEIR VARIOUS HERALDIC TERMS.
COUPED. A term for any charge in an escutcheon
that is borne cut evenly off, as the example ; viz., A
Lion's Head Couped, n. 16.
ERASED. A term for anything torn or plucked off
from the part to which nature had fixed it. The part
torn off must be drawn jagged, as the example ; viz.,
A Lion's Head Erased, n. 17.
DEMI signifies the half of anything ; viz., A Demi-
Lion, n. 18.
DORMANT, or sleeping ; viz., A Lion dormant, with its
head resting on its fore-paws, as n. 19.
COUCHANT, lying or squatting on the ground, with
26 Introduction to Heraldry.
the head upright; viz., A Lion Couchant. See
SEJANT. A term for any beast sitting in the position
of the example; viz., A Lion Sejant, n. 21.
PASSANT. A term for any beast when in a walking
position ; viz., A Lion Passant, n. 22.
STATANT. A term for a beast standing, with all
four legs on the ground, as n. 23.
TABLE IX. (PLATE IX.)
PASSANT-GARDANT. A term for a beast when walk-
ing with his head affronte, or looking full-faced, as
example, n. 1.
RAMPANT. A term for lions, bears, tigers, &c., when
standing erect on their hind legs. A Lion Rampant,
RAMPANT-GARDANT signifies a beast standing on his
hind legs, looking full-faced, as example, A Lion Ram-
pant-Gardant, n. 3.
RAMPANT-REGARDANT. A term for a beast standing
upon his hind legs, looking towards his tail ; viz., A
Lion Rampant-Regardant, as n. 4.
RAMPANT-COMBATANT. A term for beasts fighting,
or rampant face to face, as the example, Two Lions
Rampant-Combatant. See n. 5.
SALIANT. A term for beasts of prey when leaping
or springing forward, as the example, n. 6.
ADDORSED signifies beasts, birds, or fish turned back
to back, as the example, Two Lions Rampant Addorsed.
See n. 7.
COUNTER-PASSANT ; for two beasts, as lions, &c.,
Introduction to Heraldry. 27
when walking different ways, the one to the dexter, the
other to the sinister, as the example, n. 8.
COUNTER-SALIANT. A term for two beasts when
leaping different ways from each other, as the example,
Two Foxes Counter-Saliant in Saltire, the dexter sur-
mounted of the sinister, n. 9.
COUNTER-TRIPPING. This term is given when two
rams, deer, &c., as the example, are tripping, the one
passing one way and the other another. See n. 10.
SEJANT ADDORSED. A term for two animals sitting
back to back, as the example, n. 11.
PASSANT-EEGARDANT. A term for a beast when
walking with its head looking behind, n. 12.
AT GAZE. The stag, buck, or hind, when looking
affronte, or full-faced, it is said to be at Gaze, n. 13.
All other beasts, when in this attitude, are termed
TRIPPING. A term which signifies a stag, antelope,
or hind, &c., when walking, as n. 14.
SPRINGING. This term is used for beasts of chase, in
the same sense as Saliant is for beasts of prey, n. 15.
This term is likewise used for fish when placed in
COURANT. A term for stag, horse, or greyhound, or
any other beast, represented running, as the example,
LODGED. This term is for stags, &c., when at rest,
lying on the ground, n. 17. Beasts of chase are said
to be lodged; beasts of prey, when lying down, are
CABOSSED. This term is used to express the head of
a stag or other animal drawn full-faced, and without
any part of the neck being visible, n. 18.
28 Introduction to Heraldry.
CLOSE. This term is for the wings of birds (of
flight) when they are down and close to the body,
n. 19. But must not be used to the peacock, dung-
hill-cock, nor to any others that are not addicted to
RISING. A term for birds when in a position as if
preparing to fly, as n. 20.
DISPLAYED. The term is used for the wings of
eagles, and all other birds, when they are expanded,
as n. 21.
VOLANT. Thus we term any bird that is represented
flying, as n. 22.
DEMI- VOL. A term for a single wing, n. 23.
INDORSED. A term for wings when placed back to
back, as n. 24.
TABLE X. (PLATE X.)
ERECT signifies anything perpendicularly elevated, as
the example : viz., Two wings conjoined and erect ;
that is, the points of the wings are upwards, n. 1. This
charge is also called a VOL.
INVERTED. This example is the reverse position of
the former, the points of these being downwards : viz.,
Two wings conjoined and inverted, n. 2. Vide LURE.
NAIANT. A term for fish when borne horizontally
across the field as swimming, as n. 3.
HAURIANT signifies the fish to be erect, or breathing,
as the example, n. 4.
RESPECTING. A term for fish, or birds, when
placed upright, and apparently looking at each other,
as n. 5.
Introduction to Heraldry. 29
NAIANT EMBOWED. This term is used for the dolphin,
to signify the crookedness of his motion when swim-
ming, as the example, n. 6.
DEMI-LION PASSANT is one half of a lion in a walking
position, as n. 7.
DEMI FLEUR-DE-LIS is the half of a fleur-de-lis, as
n. 8, also as PL vn., n. 24.
ISSUANT, or issuing, signifies coming out ; as from
the bottom of the chief in the example, n. 9, or from
clouds as PI. xix., n. 23.
EOUSANT signifies heavy birds, as if preparing to fly,
with the wings indorsed, as n. 10.
SLIPPED. A term for a flower, branch, or leaf, when
plucked from the stock, and not cut off, n. 11.
TIRRET. A modern term derived from the French,
for manacles, or handcuffs, n. 12.
The following twelve examples are introduced for
the instruction of the learner, as he should be well
acquainted with the difference of the two monosyllables
in blazon, viz., on and in ; which, by observing, he will
see makes a great difference in a coat of arms the
former expressing the bearing to be placed on one of
the ordinaries ; the latter as if the bearings were left
remaining, but the ordinaries taken away.
ON A CHIEF.
13. Argent on a chief f gules, three lozenges, or,
14. Argent, three lozenges in chief, gules.
ox A PALE.
15. Argent on a pale, azure, three plates.
30 Introduction to Heraldry,
16. Argent, three hurts in pale.
ON A BEND.
17. Gules, on a lend, argent, three mullets, azure.
18. Argent, three mullets in bend, sable.
ON A FESS.
19. Argent, on a fess, vert, three trefoils, or,
20. Argent, three trefoils, in /ess, vert.
ON A CROSS.
21. Purpure, on a cross, argent, five crescents, gules.
22. Argent, five crescents in cross, gules.
ON A SALTIRE.
23. Azure, on a saltire, argent, five torteaux.
24. Argent, five torteaux in saltire.
Introduction to Heraldry. 31
THIS science, according to the Notitia Anglicana,
teaches how to describe the things borne in proper
terms, according to their several gestures, positions,
and tinctures; and how to marshal or dispose regu-
larly divers arms on a field, in which particular care
must be observed, because the adding or omitting any
part is oftentimes an alteration of the coat.
In blazon the following rules must be carefully fol-
First, in blazoning a coat, you must always begin
with the field; noticing the lines wherewith it is
divided, whether per pale, per fess, per bend, &c., as
also the difference of those lines, whether indented,
engrailed, &c. ; then proceed to the next immediate
charge. By an immediate charge is meant that which
lies next the field, and nearest the centre; this must
be first named; and then those which are more
remote : for example, azure, a crescent, between three
stars argent ; thus the crescent is first named, as being
-next the centre of the field. See PI. xii., n. 21.
If a coat consist of two colours only, as the coat
of Kobinson, you are to blazon it vert, a chevron,
between three bucks standing at gaze, or ; which implies
that both the chevron and bucks are or. See PL xiv.,
When colour and metal are placed several times
one upon the other, as PL XL, n. 13, Azure, on a
chevron, between three besants, as many pallets, gules.
Here the chevron is named first after the field, because
it is nearest the centre ; and as the pallets lie upon the
32 Introduction to Heraldry.
chevron, so they are most remote from the field, and
must be last named. But when bearings are described
without expressing the point of the escutcheon where
they are to be placed, they are then understood to
possess the centre of the shield : for instance, argent, a
lion rampant, gules ; but if I say, argent, a lion rampant
in base, gules, it must be placed in the base part of a
shield, which is the bottom.
A repetition, in blazoning a coat, of such words as
of, on, and, with, is accounted a great fault, or indeed
of any w*ords, for tautology should be particularly
avoided ; as, for example, or, on a saltire azure, nine
lozenges of the first ; and not, or, on a saltire azure, nine
lozenges or ; because the word or is then named twice.
But be careful that, by endeavouring to be concise,
you are not ambiguous, and that you omit nothing
which ought to be mentioned.
It is a general rule in English Heraldry, that metal
shall never be placed upon metal, nor colour upon colour ;
but examples are frequently found in foreign courts,
In blazoning of charges, be they of what nature or
kind soever, whether animate or inanimate, if you per-
ceive them to be of the natural and proper colours of
the creatures or things they represent, you must always
term them proper, and not argent, or, gules, or by the
like terms of this science.
In blazoning of ordinaries formed of straight lines,
you must only name the ordinary, without making
mention of the straightness of the line whereof it is
Introduction to Heraldry. 33
composed; for example, PI. iv., n. 5, Argent, a 'betid
azure ; but if the ordinary, &c., should be engrailed, wavy,
nebuly, embattled, it must not be omitted : for example,
PI. XL, n. 12, ermine, on a chevron engrailed, azure,
three estoiles argent.
The teeth, claws, or talons of lions, tigers, bears,
leopards, boars, wolves, dragons, and all ravenous
beasts, are called their arms, because they are weapons
of defence and offence. When these are of a different
tincture from their bodies, the colour must be named ;
and when their tongues are of the colour of their arms,
they are said to be langued, as a lion argent, armed
and langued, gules. The claws and tongue of a lion
are always gules, unless the field or charge be gules ;
then they must be azure.
Among such beasts as by nature are milder, and
by custom more sociable, may be reckoned the bull,
ox, goat, ram, &c., which are endowed by nature with
weapons, as horns, which, together with their hoofs,
are very often of a colour different from their bodies ;
we then say armed and hoofed, or unguled, of such or
Deer, being by nature timorous and without cou-
rage, are supposed to wear their lofty antlers, not as
weapons, but ornaments ; therefore, in blazon, we say
As to the dog, there are various kinds, bred up to
divers exercises and games ; so that the first considera-
tion is, what kind of dog is borne, as greyhounds,
spaniels, talbots, &c. ; what sport he seems fitted for ;
and hence the particular terms of beating, coursing,
34 Introduction to Heraldry.
scenting, &c., are very proper if they be found in
gestures suitable to their several exercises.
Nisbet says, when animals are painted upon ban-
ners, they must look to the staff; when upon capa-
risons and other horse furniture, they ought to look
to the head of the horse that bears them ; and so of all
things whose parts are distinguished by ante and post.
In blazoning birds of prey, as the eagle, vulture,
hawk, kite, owl, &c., all whose weapons, viz., beaks
and talons, are termed arms, we say armed and mem-
ber ed so and so, when they differ in colour from the
But when you meet with swans, geese, ducks, cranes,
herons, cormorants, &c., which are a kind of river-
fowl, and have no talons, instead of armed, you must
say beaked and membered ; the last term signifying the
leg of any fowl, as the feet of swans, geese, ducks, &c.,
are webbed, and in some measure resemble the palm of
a man's hand ; so in blazon they are sometimes termed
In blazoning the cock, you must say armed, crested,
and jelloped ; armed signifies his beak and spurs ; crested,
his comb ; and jelloped, his wattles : when his comb,
beak, wattles, and spurs, are of a different tincture
from his body, then in blazon they must be named ;
for instance, azure, a cock argent, armed, crested, and
As to the falcon, this bird is borne in the same pos-
tures as the eagle, and described in the same terms,
except when with Iwod, bells, virols (or rings), and
leashes. In blazon he is said to be hooded,belled. jessed,
Introduction to Heraldry. 35
and leashed, and the colours thereof must be named ;
pouncing is a term given when he is striking at his prey.
Edmonson remarks, that when small birds are borne
in coat-armour, they are most usually drawn in the
form and shape of blackbirds, although they are repre-
sented in all the different colours and metals of heraldry,
and, consequently, no distinction of species is made :
therefore, in blazon they are called by the general
terms of birds only. Hence, then, when you find birds
mentioned in a blazon without expressing the sort
they are of, they must always be drawn as blackbirds
Nearly every variety of fish is used in heraldry
the dolphin occupying the principal position, like the
lion among animals, and the eagle among birds ; the
others are chiefly used to designate the name of the
bearer, as in the names of Herring, Eoach, Pike, Sal-
mon, &c., and the kind of fish intended may generally
thus be ascertained. The heraldic terms peculiar to
fish are hauriant, with their heads raised upright or
breathing (PI. xvi., 21 and 23) ; naiant or in their
swimming position (PI. xvi., 20), and embowed applied
exclusively to the curved position of the dolphin (PL
xvi., 17, 18, 22). Occasionally we meet with the terms
allume when their eyes are bright, and pame when
their mouths are open. When the kind of fish is not
named, the ordinary shape is implied, similar to a dace
When the fins of fishes are of a different tincture
from their bodies, they are then said to be finned of
such a colour, naming it, as a dolphin proper, finned or.
36 Introduction to Heraldry.
Should the bearing be of any heavenly body, such
as a planet, &c., your first consideration is, in what
state or condition such planet appears to be : as the
sun, whether in Ms meridian or eclipse ; or the moon,
whether in her increase or decrease, &c. ; then give your
description in proper astronomical terms : for it is a rule
that all blazons are the more elegant when expressed
in the proper terms of the several arts or sciences
which the figures to be described are of, or belonging
to ; yet you must take care not to omit any armorial
term necessary to be used. Thus, in the coat of St. Clere,
PI. xiii., n. 3, azure, the sun in his meridian, proper, the
word proper must not be omitted.
TREES AND VEGETABLES.
When you meet with any kind of tree, or any vege-
table, or their parts, you must observe, first, in what
condition it seems to appear, as whether spread or
Hasted ; what kind of tree, whether bearing fruit or not ;
if a part only, what part ; whether the trunk, branches,
fruit, or leaves ; if the former, whether standing or not ;
if not, in what manner it seems to have been felled ;
whether eradicated or torn up by the roots; see PI.
xiii., n. 22. If the bearing consist of members, as its
branches, fruit, or leaves only, whether with fruit or
withered ; or simply alone, whether slipped, as PL xvin.,
n. 9, 10; pendent (drooping) or erect; which last holds
goods for all kinds of flowers or grain, when borne
simply, or on their stalks.
Introduction to Heraldry. 37
MAN AND HIS PARTS.
Man, and the parts of his body, are frequently
charges in coat-armour ; as to which these considera-
tions follow. First, as is said of other things, whether
he is borne whole, or in part ; if whole, in what kind of
gesture or action ; also, whether naked or habited ; if the
latter, after what manner, as whether rustic, in armour,
or in robes.
When the temples of a man or woman are encircled
with laurel, oak, ivy, &c., you are to call it wreathed
with laurel, oak, or ivy.
HAVING now explained rudimentally the terms, &c.,
of the science, and concisely enumerated the rules of
blazon, we proceed to illustrate the theory by examples,
which, if carefully examined, one by one, cannot fail
to prove of the highest utility to the young student.
BLAZONING OF PLATE XI.
1. Argent, on a chief gules, two mullets pierced or ;
name, St. John.
2. Argent, a fess, and in chief three lozenges sable ;
3. Or, two bars azure, a chief quarterly, azure and
gules, on the first two fleurs-de-lis, or ; the second,
a lion, passant-gardant of the last ; the third as
the second ; the fourth as the first ; name Manners.
N.B. Of the first is of the colour or metal of tlie field, which
is always first mentioned.
38 Introduction to Heraldry.
Note. The term on the first is to be understood
on the field of the first quarter ; the second is the
field of the second quarter charged of the last,
that is, of the last-mentioned colour or metal,
which is or ; the third as the second, the fourth
as the first, which signifies the third quarter like
the second, and the fourth quarter like the first.
4. Gules, a chief argent ; on the lower part thereof a
cloud, the sun's resplendent rays issuing thereout
proper ; name, Leeson.
5. Ermine, on a canton sable, a harp argent ; name,
6. Argent, on a quarter gules, a spear in bend or ;
7. Argent, on a fess sable, three mullets, or ; name,
8. Azure, a fess super-embattled, between six estoiles
or; name, Tryon.
9. Or, on a fess, between two chevrons sable, three
cross-croslets of the first ; name, Walpole.
10. Argent, a fess and canton conjoined gules; name,
11. Ermine, three lozenges conjoined in fess, sable ;
12. Ermine, on a chevron engrailed azure, three estoiles
argent ; name, Smyth.
13. Azure, on a chevron or between three besants, as
many pallets gules ; name, Hope.
14. Ermine, a chevron couped sable ; name, Jones.
15. Azure, a chevron engrailed, voided plain, or ; name,
16. Sable, a chevron cotised between three cinquefoils,
Introduction to Heraldry. 39
17. Gules, a chevron between ten cinquefoils, four and
two, in chief ; one, two and one in base, argent ;
18. Sable, two lion's paws issuing out of the dexter and
sinister base points, erected chevronwise, argent,
armed gules ; name, Frampton.
19. Sable, a bend or, between six fountains; name,
20. Argent, on a bend gules, cotised sable, three pair of
wings conjoined and inverted of the first ; name,
21. Sable, a bend flory counter-flory, argent ; name,
22. Sable, a bend and chief or ; name,
23. Argent, two bends raguled sable, the lower one re-
bated at the top ; name, Wagstaff.
24. Sable, four lozenges in bend between two plain
cotises argent ; name, Puckering.
25. Argent, three bugle-horns in bend gules, garnished
and stringed vert ; name, Hunter.
26. Vert, on a pale radiant or, a lion rampant sable ;
27. Argent, on a pale, between two leopards' faces
sable, three crescents or ; name, .
28. Argent, a pale and chief sable ; name, Mendorf.
29. Sable, a key erected in pale or, between two pallets
erminois ; name, Knot.
30. Argent, three pallets wavy gules ; name, Downes.
31. Gules, three tilting-spears, erect in fess or, heads
argent ; name, Amherst.
32. Azure, three leopards' faces in pale or ; name, Snigg.
33. Argent, on a pile engrailed azure, three crescents
of the first ; name, Dallison.
40 Introduction to Heraldry.
34. Sable, a pile argent, surmounted of a chevron
gules ; name, Dyxton.
35. Argent, three piles, one issuant out of the chief
between two others reversed, and issuing from
the base, sable ; name, Hulse.
BLAZONING OF PLATE XII.
1. Sable, on a cross within a border, both engrailed
or, five pellets ; name, Oreville.
2. Gules, a cross of lozenges between four roses
argent ; name, Packer.
3. Argent, a cross sable, edged with a tressure of half
fleurs-de-lis, between four mullets pierced of the
second (that is, of the second colour mentioned,
which is sable) ; name, Atkins.
4. Or, a cross vert, on a bend over all gules, three
fleurs-de-lis of the first ; name, Beringer.
5. Azure, five escalop shells in cross or ; name,
6. Sable, a shin-bone in pale, surmounted of another
in fess argent ; name, Baines.
7. Ermine, on a cross quarter, pierced, argent, four
millrinds sable ; name, Tumor.
8. Party per fess, sable and argent, a pale, counter-
changed ; on each piece of the first a trefoil
slipped of the second ; name, Simeon.
9. Or, on a saltire raguly gules, five cross-croslets
fitchy of the first ; name, Rich.
10. Gules, a saltire between four crescents or ; name,
11. Gyrony of four, argent and gules, a saltire between
as many cross-croslets, all counterchanged ; name,
Introduction to Heraldry. 41
12. Gules, a saltire, or, over all a cross engrailed
ermine ; name, Prince.
13. Party per saltire, gules and or, in pale two garbs,
and in fess as many roses, all counterchanged ;
14. Sable, two shin-bones, in saltire, the sinister sur-
mounted of the dexter ; name, Newton.
15. Gules, five mar lions' wings inverted in saltire
argent ; name, Porter.
16. Or, three closets wavy, gules; name, Drummond.
17. Azure, two bars counter-imbattled ermine ; name,
18. Or, two bars-gemel sable, in chief, three pellets ;
19. Argent, three bars-gemel azure, on a chief gules, a
barrulet indented or ; name, Hay don.
20. Sable three leopards' faces jessant fleurs-de-lis or ;
21. Azure, a crescent between three mullets argent;
The following fourteen coats are 'collected to show how useful
the points of the escutcheon are in blazon, which the learner
will find very essential in his practice of this science.
22. Sable, three swords barwise, in pale, their points
towards the sinister part of the escutcheon argent,
the hilts and pommels or ; name, Eawlyns.
23. Gules, three swords, barwise, their points towards
the dexter part of the shield, hilted or ; name,
24. Gules, three swords, conjoined at the pommels in
the centre, their points extended into the corners
of the escutcheon argent ; name, Stapleton.
42 Introduction to Heraldry.
25. Sable, three swords, their points meeting in base
argent, hilted or ; name, Paulet or Powlet.
26. Or, three swords, one in fess surmounted of the
other two in saltire, points upwards, between a
dexter hand in chief, and a heart in base gules ;
27. Sable, three swords in pale, two with their points
downward, and the middlemost upward ; name,
28. Azure, three swords, one in pale, point upward,
surmounted of the other two, placed in saltire,
points downward, argent ; name, Norton.
29. Sable, a fess or, between two swords ; that in
chief point upwards, the other downwards, both
in pale argent, hilted of the second; name,
30. Azure, one ray of the sun issuing out of the dexter
corner of the escutcheon, in bend proper ; name,
31. Azure, a pile inverted in bend sinister, or; name,
32. Argent, a triple pile, flory on the tops, issuing out
of the sinister base in bend, towards the dexter
corner, sable ; name, Wroton.
33. Sable, a goshawk close, argent, standing upon a
perch, fixed in base, jessed and belled or ; name,
34. Gules, a bend wavy argent, in the sinister chief
point, a falcon standing on a perch or; name,
35. Or, a dexter arm embowed, issuant from the sinister
fess-point out of a cloud proper, holding a cross-
croslet fitchy, azure.
Introduction to Heraldry. 43
BLAZONING OF PLATE XIII.
1. Gules, three lions' gambs erased argent; name,
2. Party per saltire, sable and ermine, a lion rampant
or, armed and langued gules ; name, Graf ton.
3. Azure, the sun in his meridian, proper; name,
4. Argent, a lion rampant gules, debruised by a fess
azure, between three estoiles issuing out of as
many crescents of the second ; name, Dillon, of
5. Argent, on a chevron sable, between three oak-
leaves proper, as many besants on a chief gules,
a sea-mew between two anchors erected of the
first ; name, Monox.
6. Quarterly, first and fourth azure, a pale argent,
second and third gules, a bend argent.
7. Sable, four pallets ermine ; name, Humphrey.
8. Or, six annulets, three, two, and one, sable ; name,
Note. When six things are borne, three, two, and one, it is
unnecessary to mention their position.
9. Gules, nine arrows or, each three, two saltirewise,
and one in pale, banded together with a ribbon,
feathered and headed argent ; name, Biest.
10. Gules, five cross-croslets fitchy in saltire, between
four escalop-shells in cross or ; name, Tonnson.
11. Azure, three hautboys between as many cross-
croslets or ; name, Bourden.
12. Azure, a salamander or, in flames proper; name,
44 Introduction to Heraldry.
13. Party per chevron, argent and gules, a crescent
counter changed ; name, Chapman.
14. Party per saltire, or and sable, a border counter-
changed; name, Shorter.
15. Quarterly or and azure, a cross of four lozenges
between as many annulets counterchanged ; name,
16. Argent, a chevron gules, between three scorpions
reversed sable ; name, Cole.
17. Argent, on a fess, between six martlets gules, three
cinquefoils of the field ; name, WasJibourne.
18. Sable, three scaling-ladders in bend argent ; name,
19. Sable, a falcon or, his wings expanded, trussing a
mallard argent, on a chief of the latter, a cross
botone gules ; name, Madden.
20. Argent, on a chevron azure, between three trefoils
slipped, party per pale gules and vert, as many
besants; name, How.
21. Gules, three dexter arms conjoined at the shoul-
ders, and flexed in triangle, or, with the fists
clenched towards the points of the shield proper ;
22. Gules, the trunk of a tree eradicated (torn up by
the roots) and couped in pale, sprouting out two
branches argent ; name, Borough.
23. Gules, a cherub, having three pair of wings,
whereof the uppermost and lowermost are
counterly crossed, and the middlemost displayed,
or; name, Buocafoco.
24. Argent, a man's heart gules, within two equilateral
triangles interlaced ; name, Villages.
25. Gules, three besants figured; name, Gamin.
Introduction to Heraldry. 45
26. Argent, a chevron voided, azure, between three
flames of fire proper ; name, Wells.
27. Sable, chevron rompu, enhanced between three
mullets or ; name, Sault.
28. Sable, a chevron engrailed, ermine, between three
annulets argent ; borne by the Rev. Charles Davy,
of One-house, Suffolk.
29. Azure, a bull's head couped affronte, argent,
winged and armed or ; name, Hoast, of Holland.
30. Or, three stars issuing out of as many crescents
gules ; name, Bateman, Vise. Bateman.
31. Sable, a chevron or, between three attires of a stag
fixed to the scalp, argent; name, Cocks, Lord
32. Argent, a man's heart gules, ensigned with an im-
perial crown or, on a chief azure, three mullets
of the field; name, Douglas, of Scotland. The
reason of this singular charge is, that one Douglas
was sent on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land,
A.D. 1328, with the heart of Robert Bruce, King
of Scotland, which, by order of that prince, was
to be and is now buried there.
33. Argent, on a bend gules, between three pellets, as
many swans proper, rewarded with a canton
sinister azure, thereupon a demi-ram mounting
argent, armed or, between two fleurs-de-lis of the
last, over all a baton dexter-wise, as the second
in the canton; this is the arms of Sir John
Clarice. The canton was the arms of the Duke of
Longueville, and was given as a reward to Sir
John Clarke, for his taking in lawful war Lewis
of Orleans, Duke of Longueville, prisoner at
the battle of the Spurs, near Terouane, August
16, anno Hen. VIII. 5.
46 Introduction to Heraldry.
34. Azure, three sturgeons naiant in pale argent, and
debruised by a fret of eight pieces or ; name,
35. Or, three dice sable each charged with an ace
argent ; name, Ambesace.
BLAZONING OF PLATE XIV.
1 . Argent, a saltire gules, between four wolves' heads
couped proper ; name, Outlawe.
2. Gules, three demi-lions rampant, a chief or ; name,
3. Argent, a fess sable, between three lions' heads
erased gules, langued azure ; name, Farmer.
4. Gules, a lion couchant between six cross-croslets,
three in chief, and three in base barwise, argent ;
5. Azure, a lion passant, between three estoiles argent ;
6. Argent, a chevron gules, between three lions passant-
gardant sable ; name, Cooke.
7. Party per chevron, vert and or, in chief a rose or,
between two fleurs-de-lis argent ; in base a lion
rampant-regardant, azure ; name, Gideon.
8. Party per pale, argent and sable, a lion rampant or,
within a border of the field, engrailed and counter-
changed ; name, Champneys.
9. Argent, a lion sejant azure, between three torteaux.
10. Argent, a lion saliant, in chief three pellets.
11. Gules, a lion rampant-gardant, double-queuee (or
queue fourchee) or, holding in his paws a rose-
branch proper ; name, Masters.
The term queuee applies to the tail of a beast, and the term
fourclufe denotes its being forked, as the example.
Introduction to Heraldry. 47
12. Or, a pale between two lions rampant sable ; name,
13. Argent, three bars wavy azure, over all a lion
rampant of the first ; name, Bulbeck.
14. Argent, a chevron between three bucks tripping
sable, attired or ; name, Rogers.
15. Vert, a chevron between three bucks standing at
gaze or ; name, Robinson.
16. Argent, a bend engrailed azure, between two bucks'
heads cabosed sable ; name, Needham.
17. Argent, three greyhounds current in pale sable,
collared or ; name, Moore.
18. A hart cumbent upon a hill in a park paled, all
proper ; the arms of the town of Derby.
19. Argent, three moles sable, their snouts and feet
gules ; name, Nangothan.
20. Gules, three conies sejant within a bordue engrailed
argent; name, Conisbie.
21. Argent, a chevron gules between three talbots
passant sable ; name, Talbot.
22. Or, a chevron gules between three lions' paws
erased and erected sable ; name, Austen, of Kent,
23. Argent, two lions' gambs erased in saltire, the
dexter surmounted of the sinister, gules.
24. Sable, three lions' tails erect and erased argent;
The two Plates XV. and XVII., are introduced to show the
student of heraldry the concise and easy method which is
in practice among heralds, heraldic painters, and engravers,
of tricking coats of arms.
Introduction to Heraldry.
Made use of in the heraldic sketches * and blazons of
Plates XIV. and XVI.
\ stands for \ Vert,
ABBREVIATED BLAZON OF PLATE XIV.
1. A, a saltire G, between four wolves' heads couped
2. G, three demi-lions couped A, a chief 0,
3. A, on a fess S, between three lions' heads erased G,
4. G, a lion couched between six cross -croslets, three
in chief, and as many in -base A.
5. B, a lion passant, between three estoiles A.
6. A, a chevron G, between three lions passant-gar-
7. Party per chevron, V and 0, in chief a rose 0, be-
tween two fleurs-de-lis A, in base a lion rampant-
8. Party per pale, A and S, within a bordure of the
same engrailed andj counterchanged, a lion
9. A lion sejant B, between three torteaux.
10. A lion saliant Ppr. and in chief three pellets.
* Coats thus sketched are by heralds said to be '* in trick."
Introduction to Heraldry. 49
11. G, a lion rampant-garclant double queuee 0, hold-
ing in his paws a rose-branch Ppr.
12. 0, a pale between two lions rampant S.
13. A, three bars wavy B, over all a lion rampant of
14. A, chevron between three bucks tripping S, at-
15. V, a chevron between three bucks standing at
16. A, a bend engrailed B, between two bucks' heads
17. A, three greyhounds current in pale S, collared of
18. A hart cumbent upon a hill in a park paled, all Ppr.
19. A, three moles, S, their snouts and feet G.
20. G, three conies sejant, within a bordure engrailed A.
21. A, a chevron G, between three talbots passant S.
22. 0, a chevron G, between three lions' paws erased
and erect S.
23. A, two lions' gambs erased in saltire, the dexter
surmounted of the sinister G.
24. S, three lions' tails erect and erased A.
BLAZONING OF PLATE XVI.
1. Argent, a heron volant, in fess azure, membered or,
between three escalops, sable ; name, Herondon.
2. Or, three kingfishers proper ; name, Fisher.
3. Or, three eagles displayed gules ; name, Eglefelde.
4. Azure, a bend engrailed between two cygnets royal
argent, gorged with ducal crowns, strings reflexed
over their backs, or ; name, Pitfield.
5. Azure, a pelican with wings elevated and vulning
50 Introduction to Heraldry.
her breast argent, between three fleurs-de-lis, or ;
6. Azure, three doves rising argent, their wings gules,
and crowned with ducal coronets or; name,
7. Argent, on a pile gules, three owls of the field ;
8. Argent, three eagles' heads, or, erased sable ; name,
9. Argent, three peacocks in their pride proper ; name,
10. Or, three swallows close sable ; name, Walton.
11. Azure, on a bend cotised argent, three martlets
gules ; name, Edwards.
12. Ermine, on two bars gules, three martlets or ; name,
13. Argent, on a fess between three trefoils azure, as
many swans' heads erased of the first, beaked
gules ; name, Baker.
14. Argent, on a pale azure, three pair of wings con-
joined and elevated of the first ; name, Potter.
15. Argent, six ostrich-feathers, three, two, and one,
sable ; name, Jarvis.
16. Argent, a chevron between three eagles' legs
erased sable, their talons gules ; name, Bray.
17. Azure, a dolphin naiant embowed or, on a chief of
the second, two saltires coupled gules; name,
18. Or, three dolphins hauriant embowed azure ; name,
19. Sable, a dolphin naiant, embowed, vorant a fish
proper ; name, James.
20. Argent, three eels naiant in pale, sable ; name, Ellis.
Introduction to Heraldry. 51
21. Or, three chalbots hauriant gules ; name, ChaJbots.
22. Argent, on a bend azure, three dolphins naiant of
the first ; name, Franklyn.
23. Sable, a chevron ermine, between three salmons
hauriant argent ; name, Ord.
24. Argent, a chevron engrailed sable, between three
sea-crabs gules ; name, Bridger.
ABBREVIATIONS or PLATE XVI.
1. A, a heron volant, in fess B, membered 0, between
three escalops S.
2. 0, three kingfishers Ppr.
3. 0, three eagles displayed G.
4. B, a bend engrailed between two cygnets royal A.
gorged with ducal crowns, strings reflexed over
their backs 0.
5. B, a pelican with wings elevated, and vulning her
breast A, between three fleurs-de-lis O.
6. B, three doves rising A, their legs G, and crowned
with ducal coronets O.
7. A, on a pile G, three owls of the field.
8. A, three eagles' heads erased S, armed 0.
9. A, three peacocks in their pride Ppr.
10. 0, three swallows close Ppr.
11. B, on a bend cotised A, three martlets G.
12. Er. on two bars G, three martlets, O.
13. A, on a fess between three trefoils B, as many
swans' necks erased of the first, beaked G.
14. A, on a pale B, three pair of wings conjoined and
elevated of the first.
15. A, six ostrich-feathers S.
16. A, a chevron between three eagles' legs erased a la
cuisse (cuisse signifies the thigh) S, their talons G.
52 Introduction to Heraldry.
17. B, a dolphin naiant embowed 0, on a chief of the
second two saltires G.
18. 0, three dolphins hauriant B.
19. S, a dolphin naiant, vorant a fish Ppr.
20. A, three eels naiant in pale S.
21. O, three chalbots hauriant G.
22. A, on a bend B, three dolphins of the first.
23. S, a chevron Er. between three salmons hauriant A.
2i. A, a chevron engrailed S, between three sea-
BLAZONING OP PLATE XVIII.
1. Gules, on a bend sinister argent, three of the celes-
tial signs, viz. Sagittarius, Scorpio, and Libra,
of the first.
2. Ermine, three increscents gules ; name, Symmes.
3. Azure, the sun, full moon, and seven stars or, the
two first "in chief, the last of orbicular form in
base ; name, Johannes de Fontibus.
4. Argent, on a chevron gules, between three crescents
sable, a mullet for difference or ; name, Withers.
5. Argent, two bars sable, between six estoiles, three,
two, and one, gules ; name, Pearse.
6. Argent, issuant out of two petit clouds in fess
azure, a rainbow in the noinbril point, a star,
7 . Azure, a blazing star, or comet, streaming in bend
proper; name, Cartwright.
8. Azure, a fess dancette or, between three cherubim's
heads argent, crined of the second ; name, Adye.
9. Argent, three woodbine-leaves bend- wise proper,
two and one ; name, TJieme.
Introduction to Heraldry. 53
10. Or, three woodbine-leaves pendant azure; name,
11. Azure, issuant out of a mount in base three wheat-
stalks bladed and eared, all proper; name,
12. Or, on a mount in base, an oak acorned proper;
13. Argent, three starved branches slipped sable ; name,
14. Argent, three stocks or stumps of trees, couped
and erased sable ; name, Retoivre.
15. Or, on a bend sable, three clusters of grapes argent ;
16. Gules, a bend of the limb of a tree, raguled and
trunked argent ; name, Penruddock.
17. Barry of six pieces, or and sable, over all a pale
gules, charged with a woman's breast distilling
drops of milk proper ; name, Dodge.
18. Argent, an arm sinister, issuing out of the dexter
point, and extended towards the sinister base, in
form of a bend gules ; name, Cornliill.
19. Argent, three sinister hands couped at the wrist
gules ; name, Maynard.
20. Or, a man's leg couped at the midst of the thigh
azure ; name, Haddon.
21. Sable, a chevron between three children's heads
couped at the shoulders argent, crined or, en-
wrapped about the necks with as many snakes
proper ; name, Vaughan.
22. Argent, on a chevron gules, three men's skulls of
the first ; name, Bolter.
23. Or, a king enthroned on his seat, royal azure,
crowned, sceptred, and invested of the first ; the
54 Introduction to Heraldry.
cape of his robe ermine. These are the arms of
the city of Seville, in Spain.
24. Gules, three demi-savages, or wild men argent, hold-
ing clubs over their right shoulders or; name,
BLAZONING OF PLATE XIX.
1. Party per pale indented, or and gules; name,
2. Party per chevron nebuly, sable and or, three pan-
thers' heads erased counterchanged ; name, Smith.
3. Party per fess dancette, or and azure, two mullets
pierced counterchanged ; name, Doubleday.
4. Party per bend crenelle, or imbattled argent and
gules ; name, Boyle.
5. Party per bend sinister, ermine and ermines, a lion
rampant or ; name, Trevor.
6. Party per saltire, argent and or, four eagles in cross
sable ; name, Barnsdale.
7. Quarterly, per pale dove-tailed, gules and or ; name,
8. Azure, a fess wavy, argent, in chief three stars ;
9. Argent, a double tressure-flory counter-flory, over
all a fess imbattled counter-imbattled gules ;
10. Argent, on a fess raguly azure, three fleurs-de-lis
or ; name, Atwood.
11. Azure, two bars indented or, a chief argent; name,
12. Or, a fess dancette sable ; name, Vavasour.
13. Argent, on a fess engrailed gules, three leopards'
faces or ; name, Barbon.
Introduction to Heraldry. 55
14. Argent, a fess invecked, between three torteaux.
15. Azure, a fess nebuly, between three crescents
ermine ; name, Weld.
16. Azure, a saltire quarterly quartered, or and argent,
is the arms of the episcopal see of Bath and
17. Or, a fess cheeky argent and azure ; name, Stewart.
18. Gules, a chevron counter-compony argent and sable,
between three fleurs-de-lis or ; name, Shirley.
19. Quarterly, first and fourth argent, a chevron gules
between three torteaux; second quarterly; first,
argent, a bend gules; second, argent, a fess
azure ; third, argent, a chevron sable ; fourth,
argent, a pale vert ; third, argent, a fess between
three billets gules.
20. Ermine, two flanches azure, each charged with
three ears of wheat couped or ; name, Greby.
21. Or, a buffalo's head caboshed sable, attired argent,
through the nostrils an annulet of the last,
ducally crowned gules, the attire passing through
the crown ; is the arms of Mecklenburg.
22. Or, a buffalo's head in profile sable, armed argent,
ducally crowned gules ; is the arms of the barony
of Rostock in Mecklenburg.
23. Gules, an arm embowed, in armour to the wrist,
issuing from clouds on the sinister side, and
holding between the finger and thumb a gem-
ring all proper, round the arm at the elbow a
ribbon tied azure ; is the arms of the county of
Schwerin in Germany.
24. Argent, a wheel of eight spokes, gules ; is the arms
of the Bishop of Osnaburgh.
56 Introduction to Heraldry.
MARSHALLING coats of arms is the art of disposing
several, or more than one, of them in one escutcheon,
and of distributing their parts and contingent orna-
ments in proper places. Coats of arms are thus
marshalled on various accounts : viz. to show descent,
marriage, alliance, adoption, or the gift of the sove-
Such coats as betoken marriage represent either a
match single or hereditary. By a single match is
meant the conjoining of the coat-armours of a man and
woman, descended of distinct families, in one es-
cutcheon pale- wise; the man bears his coat on the
dexter side of the escutcheon, and the sinister part for
the woman. See the example, PI. XL, n. 3.
Sometimes in blazon the man and woman are called
baron and femme. There are three rules to be observed
in impaling the arms of husband and wife : First, the
husband's arms are always to be placed on the right
side as baron, and the wife's on the left as femme.
Secondly, that no husband can impale his wife's arms
with his own on a surcoat of arms, ensign, or banner,
but may use them impaled on domestic utensils.
Thirdly, that no husband impaling his wife's arms with
his own can surround the shield with the order of the
Garter, or with any other order.
Introduction to Heraldry. 57
When a man marries an heiress and has issue by
her, it is in his choice whether he will still bear her
coat impaled, or in an escutcheon of pretence upon his
own ; because he pretendeth (God giving life to such
his issue) to bear the same coat of his wife to him and
to his heirs.
Moreover the heir of these two inheritors shall bear
the hereditary coats of his father and mother to him-
self and his heirs quarterly : the father's in the first
and fourth, the mother's in the second and third
quarters, to show that the inheritance, as well of the
possessions, as of the coat-armours, are invested in
them and their posterity. See PI. XIIL, n. 6. If
the wife be no heir, neither her husband nor child
shall have further to do with her coat, than to set up
the same in their house pale-wise, to show the father's
match with such a family.
Concerning the bearing of several coat-armours pale-
wise in one escutcheon (according to Gerard Leigh),
viz. the marshalling of divers femmes with one baron,
he says : " If a man marry two wives, the first shall be
placed on the sinister side of the chief part, and the
second's coat on the base impaled with the husband."
PI. XL., n. 5.
Arms of a man and his three wives; the first two
tierced in chief with his own, and the third in base.
PL XL., n. 6.
Arms of a man and his four wives; the two first
tierced in chief, and the third and fourth in base.
PL XL., n. 7.
Arms of a man and his five wives ; his own in the
middle, with his first three on the dexter side, and the
fourth and fifth on the sinister. PL XL., n. 8.
58 Introduction to Heraldry.
Arms of a man and his six wives ; his own in the
middle, with his first three on the dexter side, and the
other three on the sinister. PL XL., n. 9.
^ Arms of a man and his seven wives ; his own in the
middle, with his first four on the dexter side, and the
other three on the sinister. PI. XL., n. 10.*
AEMS Or A WIDOW.
A widow is to impale the arms of her late husband
on the dexter side of the paternal coat of her ancestor,
upon a lozenge. PI. XL., n. 11.
ARMS OF A MAIDEN, OR DOWAGER LADY OF QUALITY.
If a maiden, or dowager lady of quality, marry a
commoner, or a nobleman inferior to her in rank, their
coats of arms must be set side by side in two separate
escutcheons. If the lady be privileged to retain her
title and rank, she must continue her arms in a maiden
or widow's escutcheon, which is a lozenge, placed on the
sinister side of her husband's; the arms ornamented
according to her title. See PI. XLI., n. 16.
ARMS OF A WIDOW AND HEIRESS.
The arms of a widow, being an heiress, are to be
borne on an escutcheon of pretence, over those of her
late husband, in a lozenge. PI. XL., n. 12.
* These five last rules and examples have been retained as part
of the original work ; but if ever they were in practice they are now
discarded. The object of Heraldry is distinctness. No person
save an adept in the art could tell, from sucli marshalling,
whether they were the coats of different wives, or quarterings
brought in by one heiress. EDITOR.
Introduction to Heraldry. 59
ARMS OF A WIFE AND TWO HUSBANDS.
Of a wife and her two husbands : the arms of the
first husband in chief; the arms of the second husband
in base, impaled on the dexter side of her own. See
PI. XL., n. 13.*
ARMS OF A BACHELOR.
Whilst he remains such, he may quarter his paternal
coat with other coats, if any right to him belongs ; but
may not impale it till he is married. PI. XL., n. 1.
ARMS OF A MAID.
She is entitled to bear the coat of her father in a
lozenge. See PI. XL., n. 2. If her father bore any
difference in his coat, the same ought to be continued ;
for by that mark will be known what branch she
All co-heiresses convey also to their husbands a
right of bearing their arms on an escutcheon of pre-
tence, the same as an heiress.
If all the brothers die without issue, and leave sisters
behind, as they are co-inheritors of the land and estate,
so shall they be of the coat-armour also, without any
distinction at all to either of them ; because by them
the name of the house cannot be preserved, being all
reckoned but as one heir.
Anciently women of noble descent used to bear their
fathers' arms on their mantles, to show their descent.
* This also is now discarded, as a widow marrying a second
husband loses all title to the arms of the first as well as to his
60 Introduction to Heraldry.
The ancient heralds tell us, when the arms are the
same, both on the mantle and kirtle, they are then those
of their fathers; and when there are arms on the
mantle different from those on the under habit, the
kirtle, she is then a wife : those on the mantle belong
to her husband, who is a cloak to shroud the wife from
all violence, and the other on the Jcirtle belonged to her
ARMS OF A BISHOP.
Such as have a function ecclesiastical, and are pre-
ferred to the honour of pastoral jurisdiction, are said to
be knit in nuptial bands of love and care for the cathe-
dral churches whereof they are superintendents ; there-
fore their paternal coat is marshalled on the left side
of the escutcheon, giving the pre-eminence of the right
side to the arms of their see ; as the example, PI. XLI.,
n. 13. Deans of Cathedrals, Masters of Colleges and
similar institutions, impale their arms in a like manner,
with those of the Societies over which they preside.
ARMS OF A KNIGHT OF THE GARTER, AND HIS LADY.
When married, the arms of his wife must be placed
in a distinct shield, because his own is surrounded with
the ensign of that order ; for though the husband may
give his equal half of the escutcheon and hereditary
honour, yet he cannot share his temporary order of
knighthood with her, except she be sovereign of the
order. PI. XLI., n. 14. This rule applies to all the
orders of knighthood.
Is when a shield is divided into many parts, then it
shows the bearer's alliance to several families : and it
Introduction to Heraldry. 61
is to be observed, that in all marshalled arms, quarterly
with coats of alliance, the paternal coat is always
placed in the first quarter; as PI. xm., n. 6.
When a coat is borne with four or more quarterings,
and any one or more of those quarterings are again
divided into two or more coats, then such a quarter is
termed a grand quarter, and is said to be quarterly or
counter-quartered. PI. xix., n. 19.
Quartered arms were borne by Eleanor, queen of
Edward I., and Isabella, queen of Edward II. ; but the
first English king who quartered arms was Edward III.,
who bore England and France in right of his mother
Isabel, daughter and heir of Philip IV. of France, and
heir also to her three brothers, successively kings of
France, which the same king afterwards changed to
France and England upon his laying claim to the said
kingdom ; and about the end of his reign his subjects
began to imitate him, and quartered the arms of their
maternal ancestors ; the first of whom is said to be
Hastings, Earl of Pembroke.
ABMS OF A BARONET.
The arms of Sir George Beaumont, of Stoughton,
Leicestershire, baronet: azure, semee of fleurs-de-lis,
a lion rampant or, in a canton argent, a sinister hand
couped at the wrist and erect, gules; are given at
PI. XLI., n. 15.
The canton charged with the hand, is the arms of
the province of Ulster in Ireland, and was given by
King James the First as a badge or augmentation of
honour to all baronets. It may be placed as in the
above example, or in an escutcheon, and is generally
borne in the most convenient part of the shield, so
as not to cover any principal charge.
62 Introduction to Heraldry.
ARMS OP A COMMONER AND LADY.
If a commoner marry a lady of quality, he is not to
impale her arms with his own ; they are to be set aside
of one another in separate shields, as the lady still
retains her title and rank: therefore her arms are
placed as the example, PL XLI., n. 16.
MARSHALLING BORDERED COATS.
When a coat of arms, surrounded with a border, is
marshalled pale-wise with another, then that part of
the border which is next the coat impaled with it must
be omitted. See PI. XL., n. 14. But if a, bordered
coat be marshalled with other coats quarterly, then no
part of the border must be omitted. See PI. XL.,
THE exterior ornaments of the escutcheon are the
helmet, mantling, wreath, crest, badge, motto, sup-
porters, crown, or coronet.
The helmet being placed 'at the top of the escutcheon,
claims our first attention. These pieces of armour for
the head have varied in different ages and countries,
both in form and the materials of which they were
made, and in English Heraldry they vary according to
the rank of the bearer. See PL XLII.
First, The full-faced helmet with six bars, all of
gold, for the sovereign and princes of the blood.
Introduction to Heraldry. 63
Second, The full-faced helmet with five bars ; the
helmet steel, and the bars and breast part gold; for
dukes and marquesses.
Third, A profile or side-faced helmet of steel; the
bars, bailes, or grills, and ornaments gold ; for earls,
viscounts, and barons. PI. XLII., n. 2.
Fourth, A full-faced helmet of steel, with its beaver
or vizor open ; for baronets and knights. PI. XLII., n. 3.
Fifth, A profile or side- faced helmet of steel, with
the vizor shut ; for an esquire. PI. XLII., n. 4.
If two helmets are placed on one shield, they are usually set face
to face, in imitation of the Germans, who sometimes place ten or
more helmets on a shield, and in such case set the centre helmet
aflrontee, and those on each side looking towards that in the centre.
The mantling was anciently fixed to the helmet,
from which it depended behind with escalloped or
jagged edges and tassels.
Mantlings are also used like cloaks to encompass
the whole achievement, the ornaments flowing from
the helmet being called lambrequins.
According to the modernized mode of bearing
mantles, those of the sovereign are supposed to be
of gold doubled with ermine ; those of the peers,
crimson velvet folded, and ermine inside ; and those
of knights and gentlemen, crimson velvet doubled
with white satin.
Mr. Edmondson, in his Complete Body of Heraldry,
says, in the year 1760 he proposed to several of the
peers, to paint on their carriages their arms placed in
mantles of crimson, with their edges thrown back so
as to show their doublings and linings, which should
64 Introduction to Heraldry.
be of ermine, and containing a number of rows of
ermine spots, equal to those of the guards on their
coronation robes, expressing their respective degrees :
viz. a baron, two rows; a viscount, two and a half;
an earl, three; a marquis, three and a half; a duke,
" This proposal," he adds, " having met with general
approbation, was carried into execution, and had the
desired effect of showing the distinction between the
several degrees of our nobility ; after which I formed
mantles for the knights companions of the several
orders, taken from the mantles and robes which they
wear at their installations."
The lambrequin should be of the principal colour
in the arms, and the lining of the principal metal.
Considerable fancy and taste may be displayed in
these ornaments, which were often powdered with the
badges of the family. Some fine examples may be
seen in the Garter Plates of the 15th century.
The wreath is placed over the helmet as a support
for the crest. It is composed of two rolls of silk
twisted together, and of the colours or metal of the
arms. If one of the rolls be metal, the other must
be of the principal colour of the arms ; but when there
is no metal in the arms, then one of the rolls should be
of the colour of the field, and the other part of the
colour of the immediate charge.
In the middle ages, no man, who was under the
degree of a knight, had his crest set on a wreath.
Introduction to Heraldry. 65
The crest is the highest part of the ornaments of a
coat of arms, and is placed on the wreath, unless it
is issuant from a coronet, or standing on a chapeau, in
either of which cases, the wreath is dispensed with.
Crests appear on the helmets of Knights as early as the
13th century ; and after the institution of the order of
the Garter, and in imitation of King Edward the Third,
who was the first king of England that bore a crest on
his helmet, all knights companions of the order began to
wear crests. This practice soon became more general,
until at length they were assumed discretionally by
all who considered themselves as legally entitled to
Badges were anciently placed on banners, ensigns,
caparisons, and the breasts or shoulders of private
soldiers, servants, and attendants; and that without
any wreath, or other thing, under them. They were
much worn from the reign of King Edward the First,
until that of Queen Elizabeth, when they grew into
Gerard Leigh says, the badge was not placed on a
wreath in the time of Henry the Fifth ; and it never
should be so borne.
The Earl Delawarr bears the crampette and im-
paled rose ; 'and the Lord Abergavenny bears the port-
cullis and rose, which were ancient badges, PI. xv.,
n. 31 to 35 ; and refer, for further particulars, to
the articles BADGES, in the DICTIONARY OF TECHNICAL
66 Introduction to Heraldry.
The motto, mot, word, legend, saying, or epigraph,
added or appropriated to arms, not being hereditary,
may be taken, changed, varied, or relinquished, when
and as often as the bearer thinks fit ; and may, with
impunity to the assumer, be the same as is used by
other families. Many still in use have been originally
Supporters are exterior ornaments, placed at the
sides of the escutcheon to support it. Menestrier and
others say, that supporters had their origin from tilts
and tournaments, wherein the knights caused their
shields to be carried by servants or pages, under the
disguise of lions, bears, griffins, Moors, &c., who also
held and guarded the escutcheons, which the knights
were obliged to expose to public view some time before
the lists were opened.
Supporters have formerly been taken from such
animals or birds as are borne in the shields, or had
been introduced by the early engravers as ornaments
on the seals, and at the present day they are occa-
sionally chosen as bearing some allusion to the services
of those whose arms they support.
It does not appear to have been customary with our
ancestors to change or alter their family supporters;
neither is it a practice used in our days, except in some
singular instances, and then it has been done under
the sanction of the royal sign-manual, &c.
The practice of the sovereigns of England granting
supporters to the peers of each degree, seems to have
Introduction to Heraldry. 67
commenced in the reign of King Henry the Eighth,
as did that of granting the like ornaments to the arms
of the knights of the Garter and of the Bath.
Supporters do not appear to the arms of the kings
of England before the time of Eichard II. ; but a lion,
or, and an eagle or falcon proper have been assigned
to the arms of Edward III. The arms of Eichard II.
are seen accompanied rather than supported by two
white harts, collared and chained or; and in West-
minster Hall, by angels. A lion and an antelope,
and sometimes an antelope and a swan, have been
assigned to Henry IV. and Henry V., but upon no
very reliable authority. Examples of the arms of
Henry VI. appear supported by two antelopes argent,
also, others, with a lion for the dexter, and a pan-
ther, antelope, or heraldic tiger for the sinister sup-
porter. The arms of Edward IV. are painted in a
contemporary MS. in the British Museum, supported
by two white lions. He is said also to have used a
lion, or, for the dexter and a bull sable for the sinister
supporter. Of Edward V., there is no example.
Eichard III. seems to have generally used two boars
argent. Henry VII. a dragon gules and a greyhound
argent, a lion, or, and a dragon gules, and occasionally
two greyhounds argent.
Henry VIII. generally a lion or, and a dragon gules.
Sometimes the red dragon on the dexter side, and a
white bull, greyhound, or cock on the sinister.
Edward VI., lion or, and dragon gules.
Mary, lion or, and dragon or, or a greyhound argent.
When impaled with the arms of her husband, King
Philip of Spain, the shield is supported by an eagle
and a lion.
68 Introduction to Heraldry.
Elizabeth used the lion and dragon both or, and
sometimes, in lieu of the dragon, the greyhound argent.
On the accession of James L, one of the silver
unicorns at that time used as supporters to the royal
arms of Scotland supplanted the dragon and grey-
hound of the Tudors, and since that period the sup-
porters of the royal arms of the United Kingdoms have
remained unchanged, being, dexter a lion rampant,
gardant, or imperially crowned proper. Sinister, a uni-
corn, argent, armed, unguled, and crined, or, gorged
with a coronet composed of crosses-pattee, and fleurs-
de-lis, having a chain affixed thereto, all of the last,
passing between the forelegs, and reflexed over the back.
The Nova-Scotia baronets are, by their patents of
creation, allowed to carry supporters, notwithstanding
that privilege was not granted to the English baronets,
at the time of the institution of their dignity. Some of
the English baronets now bear supporters, but it is by
virtue of a royal licence obtained for that special purpose.
The kings of arms in England are not authorized
to grant supporters to any person under the degree of
a knight Grand Cross of the Bath, unless they receive
a royal warrant directed to them for that purpose ;
and yet Lyon king of arms of Scotland may, by virtue
of his office, grant supporters without such royal war-
rant, within the kingdom of Scotland, and has fre-
quently put that power in practice.
The eldest sons of peers, above the degree of a
baron, bear their fathers' arms and supporters with a
label, and use the coronet belonging to their father's
second title, if he has one ; but all younger sons bear
their arms with proper differences, and use no coronet
Introduction to Heraldry. 69
p^atcjjments. p L . xx.
By the following rules may be known, upon sight
of any hatchment, what the person was when living,
whether a private gentleman, or a nobleman ; whether
a married man, bachelor, or widower; a married
woman, maid, or widow, &c.
When a bachelor dies, his arms and crest are painted
single or quartered, but never impaled ; the ground of
the hatchment under the shield is all black.
When a maiden dies, her arms (but no crest) must be
placed in a lozenge, and may be single or quartered,
with the ground under the escutcheon all black, as the
When a married man dies, his arms are impaled
with his wife's; the ground of the hatchment under
his side of the shield in black, the ground under his
wife's side in white ; the black side signifies the hus-
band to be dead, and the white side denotes the wife to
When a married woman dies, her arms are impaled
with her husband's (but no crest) ; the ground of the
hatchment under her side of the shield is black, that
of her husband white ; which signifies the wife to be
dead, and the husband living.
70 Introduction to Heraldry.
When a widower dies, his arms are impaled with
those of his deceased wife, with his crest ; the ground
of the hatchment to be all black.
When a widow dies, her arms are impaled with her
husband's in a lozenge (but no crest) ; the ground of
the hatchment to be all black.
When a man is the last of a family, the death's head
supplies the place of a crest, denoting that death has
When a woman is the last of a family, her arms are
placed in a lozenge, with a death's head on the top.
The peer is distinguished by his coronet and sup-
The baronet by his peculiar badge.
The knight-companion by the motto of his order.
The bishop by the mitre.
THE revival of tlie various styles of architecture,
which prevailed in Britain from the Norman Conquest
to the reign of James the First, has rendered the study
of the heraldic ornaments, which formed so prominent
a feature in the ecclesiastical structures of the four-
teenth and fifteenth centuries, an object of interest to
all engaged in the erection or decoration of churches
or other public buildings ; particularly as a taste pre-
vails for that style of architecture where heraldic
figures were most lavishly applied in external and
Those who assert that Heraldry as a science was
little known previous to the Crusades, are in some
degree borne out in their statements, by the total
absence of heraldic ornament in the ecclesiastical and
castellated structures erected during the eleventh and
twelfth centuries, in the Anglo-Norman style of archi
tecture. That this omission was not caused by the
inability of the sculptors of that period, is proved by
the elaborate carvings exhibited in the semicircular
doorways and windows, the highly wrought and diver-
sified capitals, to which may be added the sculptured
72 Heraldry, in
figures which, may be seen at the present time at
IfHey, Malmesbury, and many other places. Heraldic
ornaments formed no part of the decoration of the
buildings first erected in the Lancet or Early English
style of architecture ; but at a later period, when this
style of building became more extended, and the simple
pointed or lancet-shaped windows were superseded by
the introduction of windows divided by mullions, and
other deviations from the original simplicity of this
beautiful style of architecture, Heraldic ornaments were
introduced. The large shields on the side walls of the
nave of Westminster Abbey, erected during the reign
of Henry III., A.D. 1249, may be cited as one of the
early introductions of Heraldry as an adjunct to
When the Early English style had become so altered
by the introduction of exuberant ornament, and by
large pointed arched windows divided by mullions,
terminating in flowing tracery filling up the heading
of the windows, by an almost infinite variety of graceful
curves, the boldness and elegance of the embellish-
ments introduced into the structures erected about the
time of Edward III., A. D. 13271377, demanded a
distinct title; and is now designated the Decorated
style of architecture.
In this splendid era of English architecture, Heraldry
became a distinguished feature, particularly in its
application to sepulchral monuments. One of the
earliest and most beautiful altar tombs erected in
the Decorated style is that of Queen Eleanor, the
lamented consort of Edward the First, in St. Edward's
Chapel, Westminster. Each side of the tomb is divided
by small buttresses into six compartments, having
Conjunction with Architecture.
angular canopies ornamented with crockets and finials ;
each compartment contains a shield of arms, sculptured
as suspended from an oak or vine branch : a repre-
sentation of one compartment is given in the annexed en-
graving. The charges on the
shields, which are repeated
alternately, are those of Eng-
land, three lions passant-
gardant, Castile and Leon
quarterly ; first and fourth, a
castle, and second and third ?
a lion rampant. This was the
paternal shield of arms of the
deceased Queen, which she in-
herited from her father, Fer-
dinand the Third, who quartered the arms of two king-
doms, viz., Castile and Leon, in one shield. This is said
to be the earliest . instance of two coats of arms being
borne quarterly ; and the example was followed by Ed-
ward the Third, when he quartered the arms of France
with those of England the third shield for Ponthieu,
viz., three bendlets within a bordure. These Heraldic
symbols sufficiently declare to posterity the title and
connexions of the deceased Queen, and supply the
place of a long pompous inscription.
During the reign of Edward the Third, chivalry,
and, consequently, Heraldry, became the ruling fashion
of the time. Every person who could rank above a
yeoman desired to obtain those heraldic honours
which could alone be granted by the Earl Marshal
and the King-at-Arms. Those who were allowed
to bear coats of arms sought every opportunity of
displaying them on their banners, habiliments, and
the furniture of their apartments. The contributor to
the foundation of a religious establishment was in
some measure rewarded by
having his arms emblazoned
in a conspicuous part of the
building ; and these assumed
the appearance of architec-
tural ornaments by filling up
the spandrils or spaces be-
tween the arches (as repre-
sented in the annexed engrav-
ing), which would otherwise have presented too much of
the plain surface of the wall. Shields of arms are thus
disposed in the nave and transepts of York Minster.
In some instances, Heraldic orna-
ments formed part of the deco-
rations introduced in the capi-
tals. The annexed cut is taken
from a column in Bloxham Church,
Oxon. It is said to represent
Saint George. The cross is em-
blazoned on his shield, and on the pennon attached to
the lance. The arms in the annexed cut form part of
the pierced work that supports the
transom beams in the Chapter-house
of Exeter Cathedral.
Not only did the shields and the
charges upon them become architec-
tural ornaments, but the badges and
devices of the king and nobility were
admitted in the decoration of corbels, cornices, and
The recumbent figures of knights upon altar-tombs
Conjunction with Architecture. 75
were generally sculptured in complete armour, with
their arms emblazoned on the shield. In some in-
stances, the arms are emblazoned in their proper tinc-
tures and metals. The sculptured figure ascribed to
Geoffrey Magnaville, Earl of Essex, in the Temple
Church, is said to be the earliest instance of the arms
being placed in the shield ; but there exists much dif-
ference of opinion both as to date and identity of this
The splendid windows of the Decorated style were
filled with stained and painted glass, which admitted
shields of arms to be emblazoned in their proper
colours. Whole-length and kneeling male and female
figures are frequently seen in ancient windows. The
figure of the knight is usually depicted with his arms
emblazoned on his surcoat or tabard; the dame or
lady is frequently habited in garments bearing
heraldic charges ; on the fore part of the close robe
that covers her body was emblazoned her paternal
arms, and the charges she was entitled to assume
in her own right. This dress was called the
kirtle. The mantle worn over her shoulders was
considered typical of honour and protection, and on
this garment the arms of her husband were em-
We have now to glance at Heraldry as an adjunct
to architecture, when the flowing tracery of the Deco-
rated style gave place to the latest style of English
architecture, now called the Perpendicular. This
transition took place about the end of the fourteenth
century. Heraldry before this period was only ad-
mitted as a portion of the architectural ornament ; but,
from the exuberant display of symbolic figures, and
76 Heraldry, in
the almost entire absence of other ornaments, it became
an integral part of the architectural character ; and it
has always been a matter of surprise, when looking at
the stately buildings erected under the auspices of the
Tudors, that the architecture of this period did not
obtain the title of the Heraldic style. England con-
tains two buildings in the Perpendicular style, which
for architectural splendour are unequalled in Europe,
or perhaps in the world. One is King's College Chapel,
at Cambridge ; the other Henry the Seventh's Chapel,
at Westminster. It is not our province to dilate upon
the beauties of either of these splendid structures,
farther than to notice the gorgeous display of Heraldry
that pervades them.
The west and south entrances of King's College
Chapel are enriched with bold carvings of the badges
of King Henry the Seventh, in whose reign they were
erected ; but, as the Eoyal badges will again come
under notice, when describing the chapel at West-
minster, we will at once enter King's College Chapel ;
and no person ever glanced his eye over the wonders
around and above him, without being awe-struck at the
daring of the architect that could plan, and the builders
that could erect such a structure. The whole of the
lower part of the Chapel beneath the windows is
divided into panels, and every panel is filled with the
arms of the king who erected the building. The en-
graving on p. 77 is a representation of his arms and sup-
porters : they fill three large compartments under
each window. The immense pendants hanging from
the gorgeous roof are ornamented with the rose, the
royal badge of both the king and queen at this period.
The gateway towers of Christ's and St. John's
Conjunction with Architecture. 77
Colleges have a noble display of Heraldry in the arms,
supporters, badges, &c., of their
noble foundress, Margaret,
Countess of Eichmond.
The entrance gateway tower
of Trinity College was origin-
ally the entrance to King's
Hall, founded by Edward III., ARM3 O F HEMU- vm.
in 1337, and is decorated with the arms of that
monarch and his six sons, a blank shield representing
William of Hatfield, who died in his infancy. Henry
VIII. refounded the college, and changed its name,
and as his statue occupies a niche over these arms,
they have sometimes been erroneously assigned to him
and his family.
We have now to notice Henry the Seventh's Chapel
at Westminster. Mr. Brayley, in his history of this
splendid structure, observes : " There is no other edifice
in the kingdom in which external ornaments have been
spread over its surface with such exuberant luxuriance.
It would seem, indeed, as though the architect had
intended to give to stone the character of embroidery,
and inclose its walls within meshes of lacework : with
the exception of the plinth, every part is covered by
sculptural decorations ; the buttress towers are crested
by ornamental domes, and enriched by niches and
elegant tracery. The cross springers are crossed with
airy forms, and the very cornices and parapets are
charged even to profusion with armorial cognizances."
If we were to notice the application of the arms, badges,
animals, &c., which decorate the exterior of this
building, it would occupy a much larger volume than
the one that contains these brief remarks. We must,
78 Heraldry, in
therefore, proceed to the interior ; and we are arrested
on our very entrance to this gorgeous temple by the
display of Heraldic devices on the brazen gates. The
central gates are divided into sixty-eight perforated
compartments of an oblong figure, each of which con-
tains a badge of different members of the Houses of
York and Lancaster. Among others is the well-known
badge of Edward the Fourth, viz., the falcon with an
open fetter-lock, the portcullis chained and crowned,
three fleurs-de-lis, a root of daisies intersecting a coronet ;
the letters H. R. in a knot : but we dare not loiter at
the entrance. On each side of the Chapel are the
elegantly-carved stalls, now appropriated to the Knights
of the Bath, each surmounted by a canopy of delicate
tabernacle-work, no two being alike. The helmets,
swords, and banners of the knights would add to the
splendour of any other place, but here appear mean
compared to the gorgeous architecture above and
around them. The cornices are formed by demi-
angels, supporting the royal badges. Dragons, grey-
hounds, and lions, supporting shields, intermixed with
beautiful foliage, form the ornaments of the arches of
the ceiling, filled up with fan-tracery, from which hang
Following are representations of some of the Royal
badges found in this Chapel :
1. The badge of York the white rose
crowned. In some instances, this rose is
parted per pale argent and gules, showing
the union of the houses of York and Lan-
caster; the latter having adopted the red
rose as its badge.
Conjunction with Architecture. 79
The fleur-de-lis crowned the badge of
The portcullis crowned and chained
the ancient badge of the Beauforts; used
by Henry the Seventh, as a descendant
from that family.
The letters H. E. in a knot is
worked into the open work of the
compartments of the centre gates of
the Chapel, and also in the sculptured
cornices. Knots were frequently used
as badges to distinguish different fami-
lies : see PI. xv., No. 31 to 35.
The Broom - plant
planta-genista was the
badge of the Plantagenets,
in allusion to their name.
The annexed example is
from the cornice in West-
King's College Chapel, and the Chapel at West-
minster, were both completed in the reign of Henry
the Eighth, and were the last efforts of English Pointed
80 Heraldry, $c.
architecture. The Eeformation put a stop to archi-
tectural splendour in the construction of buildings for
divine worship, and Heraldry no longer held its place
in connection with architecture. The discovery of the
art of printing had enabled the publishers to produce
translations of the classic authors. The architecture
of Greece and of Rome, in addition to their inherent
beauty, had all the charms of novelty. English archi-
tecture was neglected ; and the mansions of the nobility
and gentry erected during the reign of Elizabeth, all
show the hold that the classic orders had obtained at
that time, though the builders were unacquainted with
the means of applying them correctly. By the acci-
dental mixture of the panelled work of the Tudors
with the Greek columns and entablatures, producing
that style of building called Elizabethan, Heraldry
was partially admitted into the heterogeneous yet
picturesque masses erected during the reign of the
Virgin Queen and her successor. Inigo Jones and Sir
Christopher Wren, by introducing the classic orders in
their purity and beauty, put an end to the incongruities
of the Elizabethan style ; and from this period to the
latter end of the reign of George the Third, churches,
palaces, and public buildings, that had any pretensions
to architectural elegance, were all erected in the classic
Architects of the present day prove, by many of
their works, that they have caught the spirit of the
ancient masters, and heraldry has again become an
important adjunct to architecture : it is especially
noticeable in the decorative features of Sir Charles
Barry's New Palace of Westminster.
A. The heraldic abbreviation of ARGENT. AB. is
never used, as it is liable to be mistaken for Az.
(Plates xv. & xvii.)
ABASED, or ABAISSE, signifies that a chevron, fess, or
other ordinary, is placed lower than its usual position.
ABATEMENTS are certain marks of disgrace, added to
arms, for some dishonourable action committed by the
bearer ; but as there is now not an instance of such
dishonourable bearings, we shall not insert them ;
especially as a person not being obliged to make use
of arms, it cannot be supposed that any one would
voluntarily exhibit a mark of infamy to himself and
ACCOMPANIED. Sometimes used for between, as a cross
accompanied by four crescents.
ACCOSTED signifies side by side, as Guillim blazons
the arms of Harinan ; viz. Azure, a chevron, between six
rams, accosted, counter-tripping, two, two, and two.
See PI. ix., n. 10.
ACCRUED, full grown ; applied to trees.
ACHIEVEMENT (French achevement, the performance of
an action, achever, to perform), the escutcheon contain-
ing the ensigns armorial granted to any man for the
performance of great actions. This word is corrupted
to HATCHMENT. Vide p. 69.
82 Dictionary [ACO-ANC.
ACORNED. This term is for an oak-tree, or branch,
with acorns on it.
ADDITIONS. See AUGMENTATIONS.
ADDORSED, ADOSSE, or ADOSSED, signifies turned back
to back. PI. ix. n. 7. Two lions rampant addorsed.
ADUMBRATION is the shadow only of any bearing,
outlined and painted of a colour darker than the field.
AFFRONTE, front-faced, full-faced ; as, a savage's head
affronte. PI. XL., n. 24. This term is also occasionally
used in the same sense as gardant ; as, a lion sejant
AISLE, winged, or having wings.
A LA CUISSE (French), at the thigh : erased or couped
a la cuisse.
ALANT, a mastiff-dog with short ears. It was one of
the supporters to the arms of Lord Dacre.
ALLERION is an eagle without beak or feet. PI. vm.,
ALTERNATE, ALTERNATELY, by turns, one after another,
applying to the positions of quarterings, &c., that suc-
ceed one another by turns.
AMBULANT, walking ; the same as passant.
AMETHYST, the name of a precious stone of a violet
colour, formerly used in blazoning the arms of peers
instead of purpure.
AMPHISIEN COCKATRICE. See BASILISK.
ANCHOR is the emblem of Hope, and taken for such
in a spiritual as well as a temporal sense ; hope being,
as it were, the anchor which holds us firm to our faith
in all adversities. When used as a bearing, it is drawn
without a cable, unless it be mentioned in the blazonry.
PL xxvii., n. 10.
ANCHORED, or ANCRED, a cross so termed ; as the four
ANG-ARC.] of Technical Terms. 83
extremities of it resemble the fluke of an anchor.
PI. xxxvi., n. 33.
ANGLES, two angles interlaced saltierwise ; at each
end an annulet. PI. XL., n. 3. Tliree pairs of these are
borne by the name of Wastley.
ANIME. See INCENSED.
ANNODATED, another term for nowed; bent in the
form of the letter S. The serpents round the caduceus
of Mercury may be said to be annodated.
ANNULET, a ring. Leigh supposes annulets to be
rings of mail, which was an armour .of defence long
before the harness of steel was invented. An annulet
is the mark of difference assigned to the fifth son.
PI. vii., n. 5.
ANSHENT, or ANCIENT, a small flag or streamer, set up
on the stern of a ship, or on a tent. The guidon used
at funerals was also called an anshent.
ANTE, or ENTE, ingrafted, or pieces let one into
another, like dovetail. See PL xix., n. 7.
ANTELOPE is an animal of the deer kind ; his horns
are almost straight, tapering gradually from his head
up ; a long and slender neck, feet, legs, and body, like
a deer. PI. vii., n. 21, and n. 22, is termed an heraldic
ANVIL, the iron block used by smiths, is represented
in heraldry as PL xxx., n. 6. Party per chevron, argent
and sable, three anvils counter changed ; name, Smith, of
APAUMEE is the hand open, with the full palm
appearing, the thumb and fingers at full length. See
PL xxxv., n. 32 and 33.
ARCHDUKE'S CROWN. A circle of gold, adorned with
eight strawberry-leaves, and closed by two arches of
84 Dictionary [ARC-ARK.
gold set with pearls, meeting in a globe crossed, like
the emperor's. The cap scarlet. PL XLV., n. 16.
ARCH, as in architecture, is borne in Heraldry either
double or single, and should be drawn on, or supported
by pillars ; see PI. XLI., n. 3.
ARCHED, or ARCHY, bowed or bent in the form of an
ARGENT is the French word for silver, and in Heraldry
is white : in heraldic sketches it is abbreviated to A.
Silver was formerly used, but from its soon turning
black, white was substituted. PI. n.
ARM. This part of the human body is frequently
and variously borne, both as a charge and for a crest ;
as, an arm erect, couped at the elbow. PI. XL., n. 17.
Arm in armour, embowed proper, couped at the shoulder,
grasping an arrow. PL XL., n. 22. TJiree dexter arms
conjoined at the shoulders, and flexed in triangle, with the
fists clenched. PL XL., n. 2. Two arms in armour, em-
bowed, supporting a pheon. PL XL., n. 23.
ARMED signifies the horns, hoofs, beak, or talons, of
any beast or bird of prey (being their weapons), which,
when borne of a different tincture from that of their
bodies, are described as being armed so and so.
ARMING BUCKLE, a buckle in the shape of a lozenge.
See PL xxvui., n. 9.
ARRACHE, the French term for ERASED.
ARRONDIE signifies round or circular. See PL
xxxvn., n. 31.
ARROWS are frequently used in heraldry, and are
usually borne barbed and flighted, i. e. feathered. See
one, PL xxiv., n. 8. In English heraldry (it is exactly
the reverse in French) the arrow is always represented
with its barb or point downwards, unless otherwise
ASC-ATT.] of Technical Terms. 85
expressed. Arrows, when in bundles or parcels, are
usually termed sheaves, and are understood, unless a
greater number be mentioned, to consist of three only,
one in pale (upright), and two others in saltier (cross-
ing it), bound together, or banded. It is not un-
common, however, to have five or seven in a sheaf; but
the number, if more than three, must be specified.
ASCENDANT, rising, or issuing upward ; sometimes
applied to smoke, flame, rays, or beams.
ASPERSED, by some authors used instead of strewed or
Ass (the) is frequently borne in heraldry. Pl.xxvi.,
n. 7. Argent, a fess between three asses passant, sable ;
Assis signifies sitting, or sejant : the example is a
lion assis affronte, or sejant gardant. PI. xxxi., n. 6.
ASTEROIDS, stars resembling planets : see ESTOILES.
ASSURGENT, rising out of the sea.
ASTROLABE, an instrument for taking the altitude of
the sun or stars at sea.
ASSYRIAN GOAT. See INDIAN GOAT.
AT BAT. A stag at bay, is used to express the posi-
tion of a stag when standing on the defensive, with his
head downwards, to meet the onset of dogs and hunts-
ATHELSTAN'S CROSS. Party per saltire, gules and
azure, on a besant, a cross botonne or. Arms invented by
later heralds for King Athelstan, who expelled the
Danes, subdued the Scots, and reduced this country to
one monarchy. PI. xxxix., n. 14.
ATTIRED, a term used when speaking of the horns of
a stag, buck, goat, or ram, &c. When of different tinc-
tures from their bodies, it must be mentioned.
86 Dictionary [ATT-BAD.
ATTIKES, a .term for the horns of a stag or buck :
see the attires of a stag affixed to the scalp. PI. xxxi.,
AVELLANE, a cross, so called because the quarters of
it resemble a filbert-nut. PL vi., n. 7.
AUGMENTATIONS signify particular marks of honour,
granted by the sovereign for some heroic or meritorious
act. They are usually borne either on an escutcheon,
or a canton, as by the baronets of England. See PL XLL,
n. 15. When augmentations are borne on a chief,
fess, canton, or quarter, the paternal coat keeps its
natural place, and is blazoned first. See the arms of
Manners. PL XL, n. 3.
AURE, dropped with gold ; the same as Guttee d'or.
AYLETS, or sea-swallows, represented sable, beaked
and legged, gules ; some term them Cornish choughs.
AZUEE is the colour blue, and in engraving this
colour is expressed by horizontal lines from the dexter
to the sinister side of the shield. To avoid mistaken
in the abbreviations of Argent and Azure, the letter B
is always used to signify the latter. (See Plates n.,
BADGE. A device or cognizance embroidered
upon the sleeves of servants and followers, or on the
backs and breasts of the soldiery and yeomen of the
King Henry II. is said to have first used a badge in
this country. It is stated to have been an escarlunde, the
cognizance of the House of Anjou, he being the son of
the Empress Maud, daughter of Henry I., and of
Plantagenet, Earl of Anjou, but there is no contem-
porary authority for it. A star between the horns of a
crescent is seen upon the great seals of Richard I.,
BAD.] of Technical Terms. 87
John, and Henry III., a rose or, stalked proper is
attributed to Edward I. A castle is seen on the great
seal of Edward II. Edward III. used for a badge,
rays of the sun descending from clouds argent, also
an ostrich feather all gold. His son, Edward the Black
Prince, bearing it argent and John of Gaunt ermine. The
badge of Eichard II. was a white hart, lodged, with a
crown round his neck, and chained, or ; he bore, also, the
sun in his splendour. Henry IV. bore, on a sable
ground, three ostrich feathei-s, erm. ; also a fox's tail
dependant, ppr. He also bore the red rose, which he
inherited from his grandfather, Henry, first Duke of
Lancaster. In his single combat with Mowbray, Duke
of Norfolk, he exhibited the swan and antelope, while
the Duke had mulberry-leaves for his badge, in allusion
to his name of Mowbray. The badges of Henry V. were
a burning cresset and a fleur-de-lis crowned. Henry VI,
chose a panther, semee of roundles, and also two
ostrich feathers in saltier. Edward IV. took the white
rose, to which, after the battle of Mortimer's Cross,
where he thought he saw three suns conjoined, he
added golden rays. Another badge of this monarch was
a falcon in a fetterlock. Eichard III. used the white
rose in the sun, in imitation of his brother, and a white
boar. Henry VII. adopted the portcullis of the House
of Lancaster, and a rose, per pale white and red : after-
wards, he placed the white rose within the red one.
Henry VIII. continued this badge ; but with him the
party-coloured rose was frequently rayonnee and
crowned. Queen Elizabeth took a phoenix in flames,
with the motto, semper eadem. Her other badge was a
falcon oi', crowned or, holding a sceptre of the second,
and standing on the stump of a tree, between two
88 Dictionary [BAD.
growing branches of white and red roses ; which badge
had been given to her mother, Anne Boleyne, by
Among the most celebrated of the badges borne by
nobles, was the bear and ragged staff (which still exists
as an inn sign) of the great Earl of Warwick,
derived from the Beauchamps. The white hart of
Eichard II., and the silver swan of the House of Lan-
caster, are also still frequently met with as signs to
inns, though their origin is seldom thought of. Few of
the ancient cognisances are now generally remembered,
except the roses of York and Lancaster, and the three
feathers borne in a coronet by the Princes of Wales
since the reign of Henry VIII. ; which latter have,
without interruption, continued from the time of
their first assumption to be a favourite ornament of
The Badge of England (proper) is a rose, white and
red, ensigned with the royal crown.
The Badge of Scotland is a thistle, ensigned with the
TJie Badges of Ireland are, 1. A harp or, stringed
or, ensigned with the royal crown : 2. The trefoil or
shamrock, similarly ensigned.
All of these may be said to be the badges of the
United Kingdom, and are now represented at PI. XLIII.,
n. 1, conjointly.
The Badge of Wales is a dragon passant, wings ele-
vated, gu., on a mount vert. It was first adopted by
King Henry VII.
The Badge of Ulster (which is the distinguishing
mark borne in the paternal coat of English baronets,
commonly called " the bloody hand " in the arms of
BAD-BAN.] of Technical Terms. 89
baronets,) is on a shield, or canton, argent, a sinister
hand erect and apaumee, gu.
Tlie Badge of Nova Scotia is, or, a saltier, az., there-
on an escutcheon of the arms of Scotland, ensigned
with an imperial crown, and encircled with the motto,
Fax mentis honestce gloria.
BADGER. Otherwise called a brock, is borne as a
crest by several families, as a play upon their name ;
as Broke, Brook, Brooks, Brokelsby, Badger, &c.
See PI. xxx., n. 13.
BAG OF MADDER. This is a charge in the dyers'
arms. PI. xxxviir., n. 1.
BAILLONNE. A term used to express a lion rampant,
holding a staff in his mouth. PI. xxxii., n. 15.
BALISTA. An engine used by the ancient Greeks and
Romans for throwing stones at the time of a siege. It
is otherwise called a swepe, and is represented as en-
graved. PL xxxiv., n. 17.
BALL TASSELLED, PI. xxx., n. 12. Argent, a chevron,
between three balls sable, tasselled or ; name, Ball, of
BALL, fired proper. See FIRE-BALL.
BANDE, a French term for bend, implying the bend
BANDED : when anything is tied round with a band
of a different tincture from the charge, as a garb, wheat-
sheaf, or sheaf of arrows, it is said to be banded ; for
example, A garb azure, banded or.
BANDEROLLE, a streamer, or small flag, affixed by lines
or strings, immediately under the crook on the top of
the staff of a crosier, and folding over the staff.
BANNER, a square flag, standard, or ensign, carried at
the end of a lance.
90 Dictionary [BAN-BAB.
BANNER, disveloped. This term is used for an ensign,
or colours, in the army, being open and flying; as
PI. xxv., n. 1.
BAB is less than the fess, and is a diminution, con-
taining a fifth part of the field, and is borne in several
parts of the field ; whereas the fess is confined to the
centre. PI. iv., n. 14.
BAEBED. The green leaves or petals which appear on
the outside of a full-blown rose are in heraldry called
barbs, and are thus blazoned : a rose, gu., barbed and
BARBED ARROW, an arrow whose head is pointed and
BARBED AND CRESTED ; a term occasionally used for
the comb and gills of a cock, if of a different tincture
from the body; but the usual term is combed and
BARBED, or BARBEE, a cross so termed, as its extre-
mities are like the barbed irons used for striking fish.
PI. xxxvii., n. 14.
BAR-GEMEL, from the Latin gemelli, twins, signifies a
double bar, or two bars placed near and parallel to each
other. PI. vii., n. 16.
BARON and FEMME is used in blazoning the arms of
a man and his wife marshalled together side by side.
Baron expresses the husband's side of the shield, which
is the dexter ; femme, the sinister. See PL XL., n. 3.
BARON'S CORONET. See CROWNS and CORONETS,
and PI. XLIIL, n. 10.
BARNACLE, a large water-fowl resembling a goose ;
and by the Scots called a Cleg Goose. PI. xxv., n. 11.
The barnacle has a flat broad bill, with a hooked
BAR-BAS.] of Technical Terms. 91
point ; the fore-part of the head is white, with a bead
of black between the eyes ; the neck and fore-part of
the breast are black, the belly is white and brown, the
thighs blackish, the back black and brown, the tail
black : the wings black, brown, and ash colour. Argent,
a fess, between three barnacles, sable ; name, BernaJce, of
BARNACLES, an instrument which farriers fix to the
upper lip of a horse, to keep the animal quiet while
they bleed, or perform any other operation. PI. xxxiv.,
n. 35. Argent, three barnacles, gules ; name, Barnack, of
BABRULET is a diminutive, and the fourth of the bar,
or twentieth part of the field. PI. iv., n. 16.
BARRULY. See BARRY.
BARRY is a field divided by horizontal lines into four,
six, or more equal parts counterchanged, and is termed
Barry of six, eight, ten, or twelve ; it being necessary
to specify the number. PI. v., n. 19. Barry of six, or,
and azure ; name, Constable.
BARRY-BENDY is a field equally divided into four, six,
or more equal parts by lines, from the dexter chief to
the sinister base, and from side to side interchangeably
varying the tinctures. PI. xxxvm., n. 20.
BARRY-BENDY SINISTER, by some authors termed
BARRY-INDENTED, or barry of six, argent, and sable
indented one in the other; name, Gise. PI. xxxviu.,
BARRY-PILY of eight pieces gules, and or ; name,
Holland. PI. v., n. 20.
BASE is the bottom or lower part of the shield,
marked with the letters G, H, I, on the diagram, page 10.
92 Dictionary [BAS-BAT.
IN BASE is the position of anything placed in the
lower part of the shield.
BASILISK, an imaginary animal, represented like the
fictitious heraldic cockatrice, and with the head of a
dragon at the end of its tail. It is called the Amphisien
Cockatrice., from having two heads. PL xxv., n. 13.
BASKET. See WINNOWING BASKET.
BASNET. The name of a head-piece worn in the 14th
and 15th centuries, sometimes without and sometimes
under the heaume or helmet. Argent, a chevron, gules,
between three helmets proper ; name, Basnet.
BAT. See KERB MOUSE.
BATON. See BATTON.
BATTERING-RAM. An ancient engine made of large
pieces of timber, fastened together with iron hoops, and
strengthened at one end with an iron head, shaped and
horned like that of a ram, from whence it took its name.
It was hung up by two chains, and swung forwards and
backwards, by numbers of men, to beat down the walls
of a besieged town or city. PI. XLI., n. 7. Argent,
three battering-rams, barwise proper, headed azure, armed
and garnished or ; name, Bertie.
BATTLE-AXE was a weapon anciently used in war,
having an axe on the one side, whence it takes the
name, and a point on the other ; as also a point at the
end, so that it could be used to thrust or cleave. PL
xxvn., n. 21. Argent three battle-axes sable ; name, Gyves
BATTLED ARRONDIE signifies the battlement of a town,
&c., to be circular on the top.
BATTLED-EMBATTLED is one battlement upon another,
and is a line of partition. PL xxxv., n. 28.
BATTON, BASTON, or BATON, signifying a staff or
BEA-BEE.] of Technical Terms. 93
truncheon, is generally used as a rebatement on coats
of arms to denote illegitimacy. PI. iv., n. 12. It is
also, however, frequently adopted as a crest, without
any reference to illegitimacy ; as, an arm embowed, hold-
ing a baton, and many others.
BEACON. In ancient times, upon the invasion of an
enemy, beacons were set on high hills, with an iron pot
on the top, wherein was pitch, hemp, &c., which, when
set on fire, alarmed the country, and called the people
together. In the eleventh year of the reign of
Edward III., every county in England had one.
PL xxxiv., n. 16.
Prior to King Edward, the fire-beacons were made
of large stocks of wood. Sable, three beacons fired or,
flames proper ; name, Dauntre.
BEAKED. A term for the bills of birds, which, when
borne of a different tincture from their bodies, are said
to be beaked of this or that colour.
BEAR, the well-known beast of prey so called, is com-
mon in coats armorial and crests. PI. xxxi., n. 9. Or,
a bear passant, sable ; name, Fitzourse.
BEARING signifies any single charge of a coat of arms ;
but if used in the plural, the word is understood to
describe the whole coat armorial. See CHARGES.
BEAVER, or VISOR, is that part of the helmet which
defends the sight, and opens in the front of the helmet.
BEAVER, an amphibious animal, noted for its extra-
ordinary industry and sagacity, is naturally very fre-
quently met with in heraldry. Argent, a beaver erected
sable, devouring a fish proper, armed gules ; this coat
is in a window of New-Inn Hall, London. PL xxvi.,
BEE-HIVE and BEES. Bees are most wonderful and
94 Dictionary [BEL-BEN.
profitable insects ; they have two properties of the best
kind of subjects ; they keep close to their king ; and
are very industrious for their livelihood, expelling all
idle drones. In heraldry they are much used, to re-
present industry. Argent, a bee-hive beset with bees,
diversely volant, sable ; name, Rooe. PI. xxvi., n. 21.
BELFRY, that part of the steeple or tower of a church
in which the bells are hung, is occasionally met with as
BELLED, having bells affixed to some part. See the
example. A hawk rising jessed and belled. PI. ix., n. 20.
BELLOWS. This useful utensil, when borne in
heraldry, is drawn erect, as represented PL xxx., n. 9.
BELLS. Used as the proclaimers of joyful solemnity,
and designed for the service of God, by calling the
people to it, are in heraldry termed CHURCH- BELLS, to
distinguish them from those which are tied to the legs
of hawks or falcons. See PI. xxvm., n. 23.
BEND, one of the honourable ordinaries, is formed by
two diagonal lines drawn from the dexter chief to the
sinister base, and contains the third part, if charged ;
and uncharged, the fifth of the field. PI. iv., n. 5.
BEND SINISTER is the same ordinary, but drawn from
the sinister chief to the dexter base, or from left to right.
PL iv., n. 10.
PARTY PER BEND SINISTER, argent and gules.
PL xxxix., n. 1.
IN BEND is when things borne in arms are placed
diagonally, from the dexter chief to the sinister base.
See PL x., n. 18, and PL xi., n. 25.
BENDS ENHANCED. See ENHANCED.
PER BEND is when the field, or charge, is equally
divided by a line drawn diagonally from the dexter
BEN-BIP.] of Technical Terms. 95
chief to the sinister base ; party per bend, or and vert ;
name, Hawley. PL in., n. 2.
BENDLET, is one of the first of the diminutives of the
bend, and is in size half the breadth of a bend. PL iv.,
BENDY is when a field, or charge, is divided bendwise
into four, six, eight, ten, or more equal parts diago-
nally. Bendy of six, argent and azure ; name, John de
St. Philibert. PL v., n. 18. A border bendy, argent and
gules. PL xxxvm., n. 15.
BESANTS, or BEZANTS, are roundlets of gold without
any impression, so called from the ancient gold coin of
Byzantium, now Constantinople (the value of one being
375Z. sterling, according to Kent in his abridgment of
Guillim), and supposed to have been introduced in
arms by those who were in the Crusades. PL vni., n. 9.
Similar figures, when party-coloured, or when the
colour is not known, are called under the general term
BEZANTY CROSS, a cross composed of bezants.
PL xxxvi., n, 18. Bezanty, or bezantee, is also a term
when the field of the escutcheon, or any particular
charge, is indiscriminately strewed with bezants, their
number or position not being specified.
BICAPITATED, having two heads. PL xxxn., n. 19.
BICORPORATED, having two bodies. PL xxxii., n. 22.
BILLETS are oblong squares, by some taken for pieces
of wood, and by others supposed to be letters made up
in that form. PL vni., n. 4.
BILLETY signifies a field (charge or supporters) strewed
with billets when they exceed ten, otherwise their
number and position must be expressed.
BIPARTED, so cut off as to form an indent showing
96 Dictionary [BIE-BOL.
two projections : differing from erased, which signifies
torn off, and shows three jagged pieces.
BIED-BOLT, a blunt-headed arrow used for shooting
birds with a cross-bow, and variously borne with one,
two, or three heads. PI. xxxiv., n. 26, 27. As the
number of heads varies, it should always be specified
when there are more than one. Gules, three bird-bolts,
argent ; name, Bottlesham. Argent, three triple-headed
bird-bolts, sable ; name, Risdon.
BLADED. This term is for the stalk or blade of any
kind of grain or corn, represented in arms, borne of a
different colour from the ear, or fruit.
BLAZON. A term derived from the German word
Blasen, which signifies the blowing of a horn ; it was
introduced in heraldry from an ancient custom of the
heralds. It was the practice when knights attended
jousts or tournaments, to blow a horn, announcing their
arrival. This was answered by the heralds, who then
described aloud, and recorded the arms, borne by each
knight. Hence originated, it is presumed, the word
BLAZON, or BLAZONRY, which signifies the describing
in proper terms all that belongs to coats of arms. See
BLUE-BOTTLE is a flower of the cyanus. PI. xxv.,
n. 20. Argent, a chevron, gules between three blue-bottles
or, slipped vert ; name, Cherley.
BOAR. This animal, when used in heraldry, is
always understood to be the wild boar, and is repre-
sented as PI. xxxi., n. 20. Argent, a boar passant, gules,
armed or ; name, Trewarthen.
BoLT-iN-TuN is a bird-bolt in pale piercing through a
tun, as PI. xxiv., n. 22 ; it is properly a rebus of the
name Bolton, rather than a heraldic charge.
BOL-BOT.] of Technical Terms. 97
BOLTANT, or BOLTING, a term occasionally used to
describe the position of hares or rabbits in springing
forward when first disturbed from their burrows.
BONNET, a cap of velvet worn within a coronet.
BOKDEK, or BORDURE. Borders were anciently used
for distinguishing one part of a family from the other,
descended of one family and from the same parents.
When used as a distinction of houses, the border must
be continued all round the extremities of the field, and
should always contain the fifth part thereof. PL v., n. 9.
But, if a coat be impaled with another, either on the
dexter or sinister side, and hath a border, the border
must finish at the impaled line, and not be continued
round the coat. See an example, PL XL., n. 14 ; also
PL xxxix., n. 5.
In Blazon, borders always give place to the chief, the
quarter, and the canton: as, for example, argent, a
border ingrailed gules, a chief azure : and, therefore, the
chief is placed over the border, as the quarter and
canton likewise are. In coats charged with a chief,
quarter, or canton, the border goes round the field until
it touches them, and there finishes ; but with respect
to all other ordinaries, it passes over them.
Border Enaluron .... 3 9
Border Enurney .... 3 10
Border Quarterly .... 3 11
Border Verdoy .... 3 12
Border Entoyre .... 3 13
Border Diapered .... 3 14
Border Bendy 3 15
Boss of a bit, as borne in the arms of the Lorimers'
or Bit-makers' Company. PL xxiv., n. 23.
BOTEROLL, according to the French heralds, is a tag
98 Dictionary [BOT-BRA.
of a broadsword scabbard, and is esteemed an honour-
able bearing. See PI. xxiv., n. 24.
The crampette, which is the badge of the Right Hon.
Earl Delawarr, is supposed by Edmondson to be meant
for the same ornament of the scabbard. See the two
examples, PI. xxiv., n. 20 and n. 24.
BOTONNY, or BOTONE, a Cross. This term is given
because its extremities resemble the trefoil. PL VL, n. 8.
BOTTOM, a trundle or quill of gold thread. See
TRUNDLE. Argent three bottoms, in fess gules, the thread
or; name, Hoby, of Badland. See PI. xxv., n. 19.
BOUECHIER KNOT is a knot of silk tied as the example,
PI. xxxii., n. 32. This knot was a cognisance of Arch-
bishop Bourchier, and a representation of it is still pre-
served in several of the apartments of Knole House, in
Kent, which was formerly the property and residence
of the archbishop.
BOWEN'S KNOT. See PI. xxxvni , n. 7. Gules, a
chevron, between three such Jcnots, argent ; name, Bowen.
Bows. See PI. xxxii., n. 29. Ermine three bows
bent in pale gules ; name, Bowes.
BRASSES are sepulchral engravings on large or small
brass plates let into slabs in the pavement of ancient
churches, portraying the effigies of illustrious persons ;
the greater part of the figures as large as life. The
various colours for the dresses, armours, and coats of
arms, in many instances, were laid on in enamel ; the
attitudes are well drawn ; and the lines of the dresses
are made out with a precision which is truly surprising.
We refer for proof to the abbey church of St. Alban's,
and St. Margaret's church, King's Lynn.
BRACED, fretted or interlaced, signifies figures of the
same sort interlacing one another, as the example
BRA-BRO.] of Technical Terms. 99
Argent, three chevronels interlaced in base, gules. PI. xxxy. ,
BEANCHES, slips and sprigs of shrubs, &c., frequently
occur in coat armour. The slip should consist of three
leaves ; the sprig, of five ; and the branch, if fructed,
of four or if unfructed, of nine leaves.
BRASSARTS, or BRASSETS, pieces of armour for the
BREASTPLATE. See CUIRASS.
BRETESSE is embattled on both sides equal to each
other. See an example, PI. XL., n. 6.
BRIDGES, as borne in arms, are of various forms,
depending chiefly on the number of arches, which
should be particularly specified, as in the following
example : Or, on a bridge of three arches in fess gules,
masoned sable, the stream trans fluent proper, a fane argent;
name, Trowbridge, of Trowbridge. This seems to have
been given to the bearer as an allusion to his name,
quasi Throughbridge, with respect to the current of
the stream passing through the arches. PI. xvi., n. 22.
BRIGANDINE or BRIGANTINE. See HABERGEON.
BRISE. See ROMPU.
BRISTLED, the term used in blazonry to express the
hair on the neck and back of a boar.
BROAD ARROW, differs from the pheon, by having
the inside of its barbs plain, as PI. xxv., n. 21.
BROAD AXE, as borne in arms, is represented, PL
xxxii., n. 12. Gules three broad-axes, argent, a demi
fleur-de-lis, joined to each handle within-side, or, between
as many mullets pierced of the last ; name, Tregold.
BROCHES are instruments used by embroiderers, and
are borne in the arms of the Embroiderer's Company.
PI. xxiv., n. 5.
100 Dictionary [BRO-BUR.
BROGUE, a kind of shoe, borne as depicted PI. xxxiv.,
n. 9. Gules, a chevron between three brogues or ; name,
BRONCHANT. See OVER-ALL.
BRUNSWICK, CROWN OF. PI. XLV., n. 19.
BRUSKE. See TENNE.
BUCKETS are used in heraldry of various forms, but
most frequently as PI. xxiv., n. 7. Sable, a chevron
between three well-buckets argent; name, Sutton. They
are sometimes borne with feet, as the example, Argent,
a well-bucket sable, bailed and hooped or; name, Pemberton,
PI. xxxvi., n. 30.
BUCKLER^, or SHIELD.
BUCKLES. The buckle of a military belt or girdle,
is a bearing both ancient and honourable. See
PI. xxvni., n. 9. The shape of buckles, as borne
in a coat, must be described, whether oval, round, square,
or lozengy, as they are various.
BUFFALO, a species of wild bull. PI. xxxm., n. 14.
BUGLE-HORN, or HUNTING HORN, is a frequent bear-
ing in heraldry. When the mouth and strings of this
instrument are of different tinctures from the horn ?
then in blazon they must be named ; and when it is
adorned with rings, then it is termed garnished.
PL xxvii., n. 23.
BULL (the) is common in coat armour. Ermine, a
bull passant gules ; name, Bevile.
BULL'S HEAD, caboshed. PL xxxi., n. 27.
BUR, was a broad ring of iron, behind the hand, on
the spears anciently used at til tings.
BURGONET, a steel cap, formerly worn by foot soldiers
in battle. PL xxv., n. 3.
BURLING-IRON, an instrument used by weavers, and
BUS-CAN.] of Technical Terms. 101
borne in the arms of the Weavers' Company of Exeter.
PI. xxv., n. 5.
BUST, anronte, signifies the head, neck, and part of
the shoulders, and the full face. See PI. XL., n. 24 ;
also a bust, inp-ofile, PI. XL., n. 25.
BUSTARD, a kind of wild turkey, rarely met with in
England, and in heraldry depicted as PI. xxxin., n. 13.
CABOSHED, or CABOSED (Spanish), is when the head
of a beast is cut close off behind the ears, and full-
faced, having no neck left to it. PI. rx., n. 18.
CADENCY, distinction of houses.
CALTEAP. See GALTRAP.
CALVARY, a CROSS, represents the cross on which
our Saviour suffered on Mount Calvary, and is always
set upon three steps, termed grieces. According to
Morgan, the three steps signify the three qualities
whereby we mount up to Christ, Faith, Hope, and
Charity. See PI. xxxvi., n. 19. Gules, a cross on three
grieces or ; name, Jones, of Denbighshire.
CAMEL, the well-known animal so called. Azure, a
camel argent; name, Camel. PI. xxxi., n. 23.
CAHELOPARDALIS, CAMELOPARD, or GIRAFFE. See
PL xxv., n. 2.
CANDLESTICK. This example is blazoned in the arms
of the Founders' Company. A taper candlestick. See
PI. xxxvu., n, 10.
CANNETS, a term for ducks, when they are represented
without beak or feet. See PI. vni., n. 5. Argent, a chevron
gules, between three cannets sable ; name, Dubuisson.
CANTON, so called, because it occupies but a corner
of the field, is either dexter or sinister, and is the third
of the chief. PI. vin., n. 24. Argent, a canton sable ;
102 Dictionary [CAN-GAS.
CANTONNED, signifies a cross between four figures.
CAP or BONNET. See PL xxxvi., n. 11. Argent,
three such caps sable, banded or; name, Capper, of
CAP OF MAINTENANCE or DIGNITY, is made of crimson
velvet lined and turned up with ermine, worn by
nobility: such a cap was sent by Pope Julius the
Second, with a sword, to King Henry the Eighth ;
and Pope Leo the Tenth gave him the title Defender
of the Faith, for his writing a book against Martin
Luther. PL XLIII., n. 13.
CAPARISONED, the term used to describe a war-horse
completely furnished for the field.
CARBUNCLE. See ESCARBTJNCLE.
CARDINAL'S HAT. Pope Innocent IV. ordained, that
Cardinals should wear red hats, whereby he would
signify that those that entered into that order ought
to expose themselves, even to the shedding of their
blood and hazard of their lives, in defence of ecclesi-
astical liberty. Argent, a cardinal's hat, with strings
pendent and plaited in knots, the ends meeting in base,
gules; these are the arms of Sclavonia. PL xxvii.,
CASQUE. See HELMET.
CASTLE. Or, a castle triple-towered gules, the port
displayed of the first, leared argent. PL xxxix., n. 19.
Whatever tincture the castle is of, if the cement of
the building is of another colour from the stones, then
the building, being argent, is said to be masoned of such
a colour, as sable, &c. When the windows and ports
of castles are of a different tincture from the field and
building, the windows and ports are supposed to be
shut, and must be so expressed in the blazon j if the
CAT-CHA.] of Technical Terms. 1 03
windows and ports are of the tincture of the field, so
that the field is seen through them, then they are sup-
posed to be open ; if the port is in form of a portcullis,
it is to be named in the blazon. Note. The difference
between a tower and a castle is this : the tower stands
without walls to its sides, but a castle extends from
side to side, as the example. See a tower, PI. xxxix.,
n. 20, which points the difference.
CAT. This domestic animal is used as a crest and
supporter, but rarely as a bearing in arms.
CAT-A -MOUNTAIN, a wild cat. PI. xxvi., n. 16. These
cats being always painted gardant, the word gardant
need not be used in the blazon.
CATERFOIL. See QUATREFOIL.
CATHERINE-WHEEL, so called from St. Catherine the
Virgin (who suffered martyrdom in Alexandria under
the Emperor Maximinus), who had her limbs broken in
pieces by its iron teeth. PI. VIL, n. 17. Azure, a Cathe-
rine-wheel argent ; name, Wegirton.
CENTAUR. See SAGITTARIUS.
CERCELEE, or RECERCELEE, (a CROSS,) signifies one
circling, or curling at the ends, like a ram's horn.
PI. xxxvi., n. 4.
CHAINS are borne frequently and in various forms,
especially as appendant to dogs and other animals.
They are often, too, borne independent of any other
charge : see, for instance, a circle of chains, PL xxx.,
n. 22. Or, as in the arms of Navarre, formerly
quartered by the kings of France; " Na Varra," signi-
fying a chain. PI. xxix., Fig. 12.
CHAIN-SHOT. Some have taken this to be the head
of a club called holy-water sprinkler, others to be balls
of wildfire, generally supposed to be chain-shot, which
104 Dictionary [CHA.
is two bullets with a chain between them ; their use is,
at sea, to shoot down yards, masts, or rigging of ships.
Azure, three chain-shots or ; this coat was borne by the
Earl of Cumberland, next to his paternal coat. PI. XLI.,
CHAMBER-PIECE, a term for a short piece of ordnance,
without a carriage. PI. xxiv., n. 6.
CHAPEAU. See CAP OF MAINTENANCE.
CHAPEEON, or CHAPEKONE (French), a hood, and by
metonymy applied to the little shields containing
armorial bearings, placed on the heads of horses drawing
hearses at pompous funerals.
CHAPLET, a garland, or head-band of leaves and
flowers. PL v., n. 8. A chaplet of roses, in heraldry,
is always composed of four roses only, all the other
parts being leaves. Argent, three chaplets vert; name,
Richardson, of Shropshire.
CHAPOUENET, a corruption of the French word, cha-
peronet, which signifies a little hood.
CHAEGES are all manner of figures or bearings what-
soever, borne in the field of a coat of arms, which are
by custom become peculiarly proper to the science.
CHAEGED. Any ordinary or figure, bearing any
other device upon it, is said to be charged therewith ;
azure, a saltire argent, charged with another gules. PL XLI.,
CHAELEMAGNE'S CEOWN. This crown, which is divided
into eight parts, is made of gold, weighing fourteen
pounds, and is still preserved at Nuremberg. PL XLV.,
n. 5. The fore part of the crown is decorated with
twelve jewels, all unpolished. On the second quarter,
on the right hand, is our Saviour sitting between two
cherubs, each with four wings, whereof two point -up-
CHE.] of Technical Terms. 105
ward, and two downward ; and under, this motto, Per me
lieges regnant. The third part on the same side has only
gems and pearls. On the fourth part is King Hezekiah
sitting, holding his head with his right hand ; and by
his side Isaiah the prophet, with a scroll, whereon is
this motto, Ecce adjiciam super dies tuos 15 annos : also
over the heads of these figures, Isaias Propheta, Ezechias
Rex. The fifth part, which is behind, contains jewels
semee. The sixth part has the effigy of a king crowned,
and a scroll in his hand, with these words, Honor
Regis judicium diligit : and over his head, Rex David.
The seventh part is only of gems ; but the eighth has
a king sitting, with his crown upon his head, and on a
scroll which he holds in both hands is this motto,
Time Dominum, & Regem amato : as likewise over his
head, Rex Solomon.
On the top of this crown is a cross, the fore part of
which contains seventeen jewels, and in the top of the
cross are these words, IHS Nazarenus Rex Judceorum ; as
also in the arch or semicircle, these, CHVONRADUS,
DEI GRATIA ROMANORUM IMPERATOR
AUG., which shows that the semicircle was added after
Charlemagne's time, by the Emperor Conrad.
CHECKY, or CHEQUE, is a term used when the field, or
any charge, is composed of small squares of different
tinctures alternately, as PL v., n. 22.
CHERUB'S HEAD is a child's head between two wings
displayed. See PI. xxxm., n. 2.
CHESS-ROOK, a figure used in the game of chess.
PI. VIL, n. 9, ermine, three chess-rooks, gules; name,
Smert. See another shape, PI. XXXIIL, n. 3.
CHEVAL-TRAP. See GAL-TRAP.
CHEVRON is an ordinary representing the two rafters
106 Dictionary [CHE-CHI.
of a house, joined together in chief, and, descending in
the form of a pair of compasses to the extremities of
the shield, contains the fifth of the field. Gules, a
chevron argent; name, Fulford. PI. iv., n. 17. Also
PI. xxxix., n. 7 ; name, Twemlow.
PER CHEVKON is when the field or charge is divided
by such a line as helps to make the chevron, party per
chevron, argent and vert, PL in., n. 4.
CHEVRONEL is a diminutive of, and in size half, the
chevron. PI. iv., n. 18. When there are more than
one chevron on a coat, and placed at equal distances
from each other, they should be called chevronels : but
if they are placed in pairs, they are called couple-closes.
Ermine, two chevronels azure ; name, Bagot.
CHEVRONNY is the parting of a shield into several
equal partitions chevronwise. See PI. XLI., n. 10.
CHEVRONS BRACED. See BRACED.
CHEVRONS COUCHED signifies lying side wise. PI.
xxxvm., n. 16.
CHEVRONS CONTREPOINT signifies standing one upon
the head of another. PI. xxxvm., n. 17.
CHIEF is an ordinary formed by a horizontal line,
and occupies the upper part of the shield, containing
in depth the third of the field : it is so termed because
it has place in the chief or principal part of the
shield. PI. iv., n. 1.
IN CHIEF is a thing born in the chief part or top of
the escutcheon. See PL XL, n. 2, viz., argent, a fess,
in chief three lozenges sable ; name, Ashton.
CHIMERA, a fabulous monster, feigned to have the
head of a lion breathing flames, the body of a goat,
and the tail of a dragon; because the mountain
Chimaera, in Lycia, had a volcano on its top, and
CHI-CIV.] of Technical Terms. 107
nourished lions ; the middle part afforded pasture for
goats, and the bottom was infested with serpents. PI.
xxix., n. 9.
CHIMERICAL. A term applied to such figures as have
no other existence but in the imagination. See PI.
XL., n. 20, T. 7, n. 22. n. 23, n. 24.
CHURCH- BELLS. See BELLS.
CIMIEB, the French word for crest.
CINQUEFOIL. The Five-leaved Grass, so called, which
is a common bearing, usually drawn or engraved with the
leaves issuing from a kind of ball as a centre point. PI. vi.,
n. 24. Or, a cinquefoil sable ; name, Brailford, of Derby.
CIRCLE of CHAINS, PI. xxx., n. 22.
of GOLD, PI. XXXVIIL, n. 9.
CIRCULAR WREATH. See PI. XXXVIIL, n. 6.
Civic CROWN was a garland composed of oak-leaves
and acorns, and given by the Komans as a reward to
any soldier that saved the life of a Eoman citizen in
an engagement. This was reckoned more honourable
than any other crown, though composed of better
materials. Plutarch says the reason why the branches
of the oak should be made choice of before' all others
is, that the oaken wreath being sacred to Jupiter, the
great guardian of the city, they might think it the
most proper ornament for him who preserved a citizen.
The most remarkable person upon record for obtaining
these rewards, was one C. Siccius (or Sicinius) Denta-
tus: who had received in the time of his military
service eight crowns of gold ; fourteen civic crowns,
three mural, eighty-three golden torques or collars, sixty
golden armillce or bracelets, eighteen Jiastce puree, or
fine spears of wood, and seventy-five phalerce, or suits
of rich trappings for a horsa
108 Dictionary [CLA-COA.
CLAM, a Scotch term for an escalop or cockle-shell.
CLARION, or CLARICORD. See BEST.
CLECHE, or CLECHEE, a French term, applied to any
ordinary which is so completely perforated, that its
edges only are visible.
CLECHE, A CROSS (voided and pomette), is one which
spreads from the centre towards the extremities, then
ends in an angle in the middle of the extremity, by
lines drawn from the two points that make the breadth
till they join. PL xxxvii., n. 17.
CLEG GOOSE. See BARNACLE.
CLINCHED signifies the hand to be shut, as PL XL.,
CLOCKS, when used in arms, are drawn as table-clocks.
In that in the arms of the Clockmakers' Company, the
feet are four lions couchant, and it is ensigned with a
CLOSE, when the wings of a bird are down, and
close to the body. PL rx., n. 19. The term is used for
horse barnacles when they are not extended : also to
denote a helmet with the visor down, as PL XLII.,
CLOSE-GIRT, is said of figures habited, whose clothes
are tied about the middle.
CLOSET is a diminutive of the bar, being the same
figure to one half of its breadth. PL iv., n. 15.
CLOSING TONGS, a tool used by the founders, and
made part of their crest. PL xxiv., n. 9.
CLOUDS frequently occur in arms, with devices issu-
ing therefrom, and surrounding charges.
CLYMANT, a term sometimes used to describe a goat
when reared on its hind legs : see SALIENT.
CO-AMBULANT, passant or walking together.
COB-COL,] of Technical Terms. 109
COBWEB and SPIDER, a cobweb, in the centre a spider.
PI. xxxix., n. 10 This is the arms of Cobster.
COCK. In heraldry, the cock is always understood
to be the dunghill cock, unless otherwise expressed,
and is represented as PI. xxxi., n. 14. Azure, three
cocks, argent, armed, crested, and jettoped, proper ; name,
COCKATRICE, an imaginary monster, which in his
wings and legs partakes of the fowl, and in his tail of
the snake, PI. vn., n. 23. Sable, a cockatrice or, combed
gules ; name, Bothe.
COCKATRICE DISPLAYED, PL xxxvin., n. 26. Sable, a
cockatrice displayed argent, crested, membered, and jelloped,
gules ; name, Buggine.
COCKE, a term used by Leigh for a chess-rook.
COGNIZANCE. This term is frequently but very in-
accurately used to signify the crest. Crests were only
worn by such as had superior military command, in
order that they might be the better distinguished in an
engagement, and thereby rally their men, if dispersed ;
whereas Cognizances were badges which subordinate
officers, and even soldiers, bore on their clothes or
arms for distinction-sake ; see BADGES.
COLLARED signifies any animal having a collar about
COLOURS, and metals, when engraved, are known by
dots and lines : as OR, the metal gold, is known in
engraving by small dots or points ; ARGENT, a metal
which is white, and signifies silver, is always left
plain ; GULES, is expressed by lines perpendicular from
top to bottom ; AZURE, by horizontal lines from side to
side ; SABLE, by horizontal and perpendicular lines
crossing each other ; VERT, by hatched lines from right
to left diagonally ; PURPURE, by hatched lines from the
sinister chief to the dexter base, diagonally. The
metals or and argent are allowed precedency to colours.
Some of those fantastic writers of the 15th and 16th
centuries, who have thrown such discredit upon the
science they intended to support, promulgated the absurd
opinion that colours, especially when compounded, were
originally intended to signify certain virtues in the
bearer, viz., gules with or signifies desire to conquer,
with argent revenge, with vert courage in youth, &c.
Some, also, that Gentlemen, Esquires, Knights, and
Baronets' arms should be blazoned by metals and
colours; Barons, Viscounts, Earls, Marquises, and
Dukesj* by precious stones ; Sovereign Princes, Kings,
and Emperors, by planets. Premising that such ideas
are purely visionary, and the practice of such rules
mere affectation, we subjoin a table illustrating the
Yellow, ) W fOr,
Dr n . Tail,
These distinctions, however, were nowhere used but
in England, being justly held in ridicule in all other
countries, as a fantastic humour of our nation.
COLUMBINE. This flower is borne in the arms of the
COM-CON.] of Technical Terms. Ill
company of Cooks. PI. xxv., n. 4. Argent, a chevron
sable, between three columbines, proper ; name. Hall, of
COMBATANT, that is to say, fighting, face to face.
T. 9, n. 5. Or, lions rampant combatant, gules, langued
and armed azure ; name, Wycombe.
COMET, or BLAZING STAB, in heraldry, is a star of six
points with a tail streaming from it in bend, as the ex-
ample, PI. XYIII., n. 7 ; according to Guillim, is not of
an orbicular shape, as other celestial bodies are, but
rather dilates in the centre like a hairy bush, and
grows thence taperwise, in the manner of a fox's tail.
Comets were supposed to prognosticate events to come.
They appear to be borne in coat-armour, of which the
aforesaid author gives us an instance ; thus, Azure, a
comet, streaming in bend, or ; name, Cartwright.
COMPARTMENTS. See PARTITIONS.
COMPLEMENT. A term used to signify the moon at
her full ; the technical mode of blazonry being, " the
moon in her complement."
COMPONY, is when a border, pale, bend, or other
ordinary, is made up of small squares, consisting of
two metals, or colours, in one row alternately. See
PL v., n. 14.
COMPONY and COUNTER-COMPONY, or COUNTER-COM-
PONY only, the same when in two rows.
CONEY, a rabbit.
CONTRONTE, facing or fronting one another ; a term
used by the French heralds as synonymous with com-
CONGER-EEL'S HEAD, couped, borne on a pale ; name,
Gascoigne. PI. xxxvii., n. 15.
CONJOINED, or CONJUNCT, signifies charges in arms
112 Dictionary [CON-COR.
when joined together; viz., gules, two lions rampant,
conjoined under one head, gardant, argent ; name, Kellum.
See PI. xxxii., n. 22. Seven mascles conjunct, three,
three and one. PI. xxxiv., n. 32.
CONJOINED IN LURE is two wings joined together,
with their tips downwards ; as the example, PI. x., n. 2.
CONTOURNE, a French term applied to animals turned
to the sinister side of the shield. PI. xxxii., n. 23.
CONTRE signifies counter or opposite.
CONTREPOINT is when two chevrons meet in the fess
points, the one rising from the base, the other inverted,
falling from the chief, so that they are counter or
opposite to one another. See PI. xxxvm., n. 17.
CONTRETREVIS, an ancient term for party per fess.
CORSLET. See CUIRASS.
COOTE, a small water-fowl, of the duck tribe, with a
sharp-pointed beak, and its plumage all black, except
at the top of the head. See PI. xxvi., n. 17.
COPPER. An instrument used by gold and silver
wire-drawers to wind wire upon, and borne by them as
part of their armorial ensign. PI. xxiv., n. 2.
COPPER CAKE. See PI. xxxvi., n. 6. Ermine, three
copper cakes gules, and on a chief gules, a chamber proper ;
name, CJiamlters, of London, Esq.
CORBIE, an heraldic term for a raven.
CORDED, signifies wound about with cords, as the
example, PI. xxxvn., n. 6.
CORMORANT. A sharp-billed bird, in other respects
much resembling a goose. See PI. xxxm., n. 16.
CORNET, a musical instrument. PI. xxx., n. 23.
CORNISH CHOUGH is a fine blue or purple black bird,
with red beak and legs. PI. xxxi., n. 17.
CORNUCOPIA, or Horn of Plenty, filled with fruits,
COR-COU.] of Technical Terms. 113
corn, &c., an emblem generally placed in the hands of
the figures of Plenty and Liberality.
CORONET (Ital. coronetta, the diminutive of corona, a
crown), when not otherwise described, is always under-
stood to be a ducal one. For the coronets worn by the
several degrees of nobility in England, &c., see CROWNS
and CORONETS ; and for Coronets mural, naval, &c., see
MURAL, NAVAL, &c.
COST, or COTICE, is one of the diminutives of the
bend, seldom borne but in couples with a bend between
them. PL iv., n. 8.
COTICED, or COTISED, anything that is accosted, sided,
or accompanied by another. See PI. XL, n. 20. Argent,
on a bend gules, coticed sable, three pair of wings con-
joined of the first ; name, Wingfield.
COTICE. A term used by the French when an
escutcheon is divided bendwise into many equal parts.
COTTON-HANK, PI. XLI., n. 6. Azure, a chevron be-
tween three cotton hanlcs, argent ; name, Cotton.
COUNTERCHANGED is an intermixture of several metals
and colours one against another. See an example,
PI. XIIL, n. 15. Quarterly or and azure, a cross of
four lozenges between as many annulets, counterchanged ;
name, Peacock. Likewise see the examples in
PI. xxxvm., n. 19, 20, and 22.
COUNTER-COMPONE, composed of small squares, but
never above two rows. PI. v., n. 14.
COUNTS R-EMBOWED, a dexter arm, couped at the
shoulder, counter-embowed. PI. XL., n. 19.
COUNTER-IMBATTLED. See the example, PI. XL., n. 5.
Azure, a fess counter-imbattled, argent ; name, Garnas, of
114 Dictionary [cou.
COUNTER-PASSANT is when two beasts are passing the
contrary way to each other. PI. ix, n. 8. Sable, two
lions counter - passant argent, collared gules; name,
COUNTER-POTENT. See POTENT.
COUNTER-PURFLEW. See PuRFLEW.
COUNTER-SALIENT. See SALIENT.
COUNTER-TRIPPING. See TRIPPING.
COUNTER-VAIR, or and azure : this fur differs from
vair, by having its cups or bells of the same tinctures,
placed base against base, and point against point,
ranged with their heads and points one upon the other,
as or upon or. PI. n., n. 5.
COUCHANT signifies a beast lying down, but with his
head lifted up, which distinguishes the beast so lying
from dormant. PI. vin., n. 20.
COUPED is when the head or any other limb of an
animal, or any charge in an escutcheon that is borne,
is cut evenly off. See the examples. PI. vni., n. 16.
PI. xxxvi., n. 14. PI. XVIIL, n. 14, n. 19.
f^ff When boar's, bears', wolves', whales', and otters'
heads, are couped close to the head, as example,
PI. xxxvin., n. 2, it is termed couped close, to distinguish
it from a boar's head couped, as PI. XXXVIIL, n. 3, and
PI. xxxix., n. 17.
COUPED, or HUMETTEE, A CROSS, signifies one so cut,
or shortened, that the extremities reach not the outlines
of the esutcheon. PI. xxxvi., n. 14.
COUPLE-CLOSE, so termed from its enclosing by
couples the chevron, of which it is a diminutive, being
its fourth part. PI. iv, n. 19. Couple-closes are always
borne by pairs, one on each side of a chevron. See
Plate XL, n. 16. Sable, a chevron between two couple-
COU-ORE.] of Technical Terms. 115
closes, accompanied with three cinguefoils or ; name,
COURANT, the heraldic term for running. PI. ix., n. 16.
COWARD, or COWED, is when a lion or other animal
has its tail hanging down between its legs. PI. xxxu.,
CRAB ; the well-known shell-fish so called, is occa-
sionally borne in arms. Argent, a chevron, between three
sea crabs gules ; name, Bridger.
CRAMPS, or CRAMPOONS, are pieces of iron, hooped at
each end, and used in buildings to fasten two stones
together. PL xxiv., n. 16.
CRAMPET, or CRAMPETTE, is the chape or metal ter-
mination at the bottom of the scabbard of a sword,
by the French termed Botterolle. Argent, three bot-
terolks gules, are the arms of the duchy of Angria.
PI. xxiv., n. 20.
CRAMPONNEE, CROSS, so termed because it has at
each end a cramp, or square piece, coming from it.
PL xxxvi., n. 5.
CRENELLEE. See IMBATTLED.
CRESCENT, or a half-moon, with its horns turned
towards the chief of the shield ; by this position it
differs from the increscent and decrescent. See PL vn.,
n. 6. Azure, a crescent argent ; name, Lucy.
CRESCENTED, A CROSS, that is, having a crescent at
each end. PL xxxvi., n. 35.
CREST is a figure placed upon a w r reath, coronet, or
cap of maintenance, above the helmet or shield.* No
women, except sovereign princesses, attach to their
arms the helmet, mantlings, wreath, crest, or motto.
See PL XXVIIL, n. 5.
* See note to p. 64.
116 Dictionary [CRE-CEO.
CRESTED is when the cock, or other bird, has its
comb of a different tincture from its body ; it is then
termed crested of such a tincture, naming it.
CHINED (Lat. crinis, the hair) is a term used in
blazonry when speaking of the hair of a man or
woman, or the mane of a horse, which, when it differs
in tincture from the rest of the charge, is said to be
crined of such a metal or colour.
CRONEL, the iron head of a tilting spear. PI. xxxiv.,
n. 19. Sable, a chevron, ermine, between three cronels of
a tilting spear, argent ; name, Wiseman.
CROSIER. The crook or pastoral staff of bishops
and abbots, a common bearing in the arms of dioceses
and monasteries. It is called Baculis Pastoralis, as
given to them in respect of their pastoral charge and
superintendence over their flock, as well for feeding
them with wholesome doctrine, as for defending them
from the incursions of the wolf ; wherein they imitate
the good and watchful shepherd, to whose crook this
crosier bears a resemblance. PL XXVIL, n. 8.
CROSS, one of the honourable ordinaries, formed by
the meeting of two perpendicular with two horizontal
lines, near the fess-point, where they make four right
angles ; the lines are not drawn throughout, but dis-
continued the breadth of the ordinary, which takes up
only the fifth part of the field, when not charged, but
if charged, the third. PL iv., n. 20.
CROSS-BOW, or ARBALEST. The bow is an instru-
ment to shoot arrows from ; they are of two sorts, the
long-bow and cross-bow ; the first discharges an arrow
by the force of him who draws the bow ; while the
latter owes its extension to the power of a small lever,
which is let off by means of a trigger. Ermine, a cross-
CORONETS.] of Technical Terms. 117
bow bent in pale gules; name, Arblaster. PI. xxvn.,
CROSS CROSSLET, that is, crossed at each end. Pl.vi.,
PER CROSS. This term signifies the field to be
divided into four equal parts, and to consist of metals
and colours, or furs and colours, without any charge
occupying the quarters ; but if the quarters be charged,
then it is blazoned quarterly. Party per cross, gules
and argent. PI. in., n. 5.
CROSS OF JERUSALEM. See JERUSALEM CROSS.
CROSSWISE, or, in cross, is when any charges are
placed in form of a cross, five being the common
number. See PL xxxvi., n. 17 and 18.
CROWNS AND CORONETS OF ENGLAND.
The EOYAL CROWN of GREAT BRITAIN is a circle of
gold, enriched with pearls and stones, and heightened
up with four crosses pattee, and four fleurs-de-lis alter-
nately; from these rise four arch-diadems, adorned
with pearls, which close under a mound, ensigned by
a cross pattee. Edward IV. was the first sovereign of
England that, in his seal, or on his coin, was crowned
with an arch-diadem. The crown used at the last
coronation was beautified and improved agreeably to
the taste of the age. PI. XLIII., n. 1.
The PRINCE OF WALES'S CORONET is a circle of gold,
set round with crosses pattee, and fleurs-de-lis, but has
only one arch, decorated with pearls, surmounted by a
mound and cross. PI. XLIII., n. 2. Three ostrich-
feathers, argent, quilled or, enfiled with a prince's
coronet of the last, with an escrol, azure, thereon the
words Ich dien, I serve, PI. 5, n, 24, is the badge or
1.18 Dictionary [CORONETS.
cognisance of every Prince of Wales, and is popularly
supposed to have been assumed by Edward the Black
Prince, after the battle of Cressy, A.D. 1346, where
] laving, with his own hand, . killed John, king of
Bohemia, who served the king of France in his wars,
and was his stipendiary, he took from his head such a
plume and put it on his own, to perpetuate the victory.
There is no authority, however, for the statement that
he personally slew the brave blind old king, and strong
evidence that an ostrich-feather was a family badge
borne by Edward III., and all his family.
YOUNGER SONS, or BROTHERS of the BLOOD EOTAL.
Tins coronet has a circle of gold, heightened up with
four fleurs-de-lis, crosses pattee and strawberry-leaves
alternately. PI. XLIIL, n. 3.
NEPHEWS of the BLOOD EOYAL differ from the
younger sons or brothers, by having strawberry-leaves
on the rim, as theirs have fleurs-de-lis. PI. XLIIL, n. 3.
PRINCESS EOYAL. Coronets of the Princesses of
Great Britain are a circle of gold, and heightened up
with crosses pattee, fleurs-de-lis, and strawberry-leaves
alternately. PL XLIIL, n. 5.
DUKE'S CORONET is a circle of gold, with eight straw-
berry or parsley-leaves, of equal height, above the rim.
PL XLIIL, n. 6.
MARQUIS'S CORONET is a circle of gold, set round
with four strawberry-leaves, and as many pearls, on
pyramidical points of equal height, alternately.
PL XLIIL, n. 7.
EARL'S CORONET is a circle of gold, heightened up
with eight pyramidical points or spikes ; on the tops of
which are as many pearls, which are placed alternately
with as many strawberry-leaves, below on the rim.
PL XLIIL, n. 8.
CROWNS.] of Technical Terms. 119
VISCOUNT'S CORONET is a circle of gold, having six-
teen pearls on the rim. Coronets were first assigned
to viscounts in the reign of King James I. PL XLIII.,
BARON'S CORONET, on a gold circle, six pearls,
PL XLIII., n. 10. Coronets were assigned to barons by
King Charles II., after his restoration.
The pearls on the English coronets are commonly
called pearls, but they are always made of silver.
Originally the barons wore scarlet caps turned up
with white: they afterwards wore caps of crimson
turned up with ermine, and on the top a tassel of gold.
This they used till the reign of Charles II., as before
mentioned. All the above coronets have within them,
when worn, a cap of crimson velvet with a gold tassel
on the top, and a border of .ermine, which is seen
below the circlet; but the caps are now occasionally
omitted in representation, which gives to the coronet a
more mediaeval character.
In 1665, Charles II. granted his royal warrants to
the officers of arms in Scotland and Ireland, for the
peers of each of those kingdoms to wear the same
fashioned coronets as those of England, according to
their several degrees.
The mitres of archbishops and bishops are distin-
guished by a plain fillet of gold. See PL XLIII., n. 12.
Excepting that of the Palatine Bishop of Durham,
which has it issuing out of a ducal coronet.
CROWNS FOREIGN, &c. PLATE XLV.
1 Celestial, 5 Charlemagne, 9 Portugal,
2 Eastern, 6 Grand Seignor, 10 Denmark,
3 Imperial, 7 France, 11 Russia,
4: Pope, S Spain, 12 Prussia,
120 Dictionary [CRO-CUS.
CROWNS FOEEIGN, &c. PLATE XLV. continued.
13 Poland, 18 Dauphin, 23 Mural,
14 Persia, 19 Brunswick, 24 Civic,
15 Electoral, 20 Doge of Venice, 25 Triumphal,
16 Archduke, 21 Vallery, 26 Obsidional,
17 Duke of Tuscany, 22 Naval, 27 Chaplet,
CROWNS FOREIGN, &c. PLATE XLIV.
1 Bohemia, 9 Waldeck, 17 Guastalla,
2 Sardinia, 10 Mecklenburg, 18 Baden,
3 Sicily, 11 Genoa, 19 Modena,
4 Holland, 12 Lorraine, 20 Holstein,
5 Orange, 13 Guelderland, 21 Hungary,
6 Hanover, 14 Mentz, 22 Sweden,
7 Palatine, 15 Catalonia, 23 Mantua,
8 Cologne, 16 Parma, 24 Valence.
These crowns are copied from the seals of the dif-
CROWNS, Vallery, Mural, &c. See those terms.
CRUSULY is the field or charge, strewed over with
CRWTH, an ancient term for a violin.
CUBIT ARM is the hand and arm couped at the elbow.
See PI. XL., n. 17.
CUIRASS, or breast-plate of armour. See PI.
xxvni., n. 1.
CUISSES are those parts of armour which cover the
thighs and knees, and by former heralds were called
CULLVERS, or Culliers. See CUISSES.
CUMBENT. See LODGED.
CURRIER'S SHAVE. A tool used by curriers to thin
leather ; it is borne in the arms and crest of the
Curriers' Company. PI. xxv,, n. 18.
CUSHIONS. This charge is borne by many ancient
CUT-DEC.] of Technical Terms. 121
families. PI. xxvm., n. 15. Gules, three cushions ermine,
buttoned and tasselled or ; name, Redman.
CUTTING-IRON. A tool used by the patten-makers,
and borne by them in their armorial ensign, PL xxxiv.,
CUTTLE-FISH, or Ink-fish. PI. xxxm., n. 22.
CYGNET EOTAL. This term is given to swans when
they are collared about the neck with an open crown,
and a chain affixed thereto. See PL xxxi., n. 15.
The most proper blazon is, a swan argent, ducally gorged
and chained or. When the head of a swan is a charge,
it is blazoned, a swan's neck (not head) erased or couped :
but this is not the custom in regard to any other species
DACRE'S KNOT and BADGE. See PL XXXIL, n. 35.
DANCETTE is a larger sort of indenting (being wider
and deeper than that called indented), whose points
never exceed three in number. PL in. Note. See the
difference in PL xix., n. 12. Or, a fess dancette sable.
N. 11, is azure two bars indented or, a chief argent.
DANISH AXE or HATCHET. See PL xxxn., n. 11, and
PL xxix., n. 6.
DARNEL, a term for a cockle.
DAUPHIN'S CROWN is a circle of gold, set round with
eight fleurs-de-lis, closed at the top with four dolphins,
whose tails conjoin under a fleur-de-lis. PL XLV.,
DEBRUISED is when a bend or other ordinary is
placed over any animal, whereby it is debarred of its
natural freedom. See PL xxxn., n. 17.
DECOLLATED, having the head cut off.
DECRESCENT shows the state of the moon when she
declines from her full to her last quarter, and differs
122 Dictionary [DEF-DEX.
from the increscent by having the horns towards the
left side of the shield. PL vu., n. 8. Azure a decrescent
proper ; name, De la Luna.
DEFAMED signifies a creature to have lost its tail, as
if it were disgraced and made infamous by the loss
thereof. PL xxxn., n. 14.
DEGRADED. A cross is said to be degraded when it
has steps at each end. PL xxxvi., n. 3. Argent, a cross
degraded sable ; name, Wyntworth.
DEMI signifies the half of a thing, as a demi-lion.
See PL vin., n. 18. Or, a demi-lion rampant gules ; name,
DEMI-VOL is one wing. PL ix., n. 23.
DEMI FLEUR-DE-LIS. PL x., n. 8. A demi-fleur-
de-lis gules is the crest of Stoddyr. See another,
PL xxv., n. 24.
DEMI-EOSE. See PL xxxn., n. 29. Or, on a fess
vert, between three battle-axes gules, a fleur-de-lis or, en-
closed by two demi-roses argent ; name, Jenynges.
DENMARK, CROWN of, PL XLV., n. 10.
DETRIMENT, a term for the moon when eclipsed.
DEVOURING. See VOEANT.
DEXTER signifies the right-hand side of the escut-
cheon ; the supporter, and everything placed on the
right hand, is termed the dexter ; it is also the male
side in an impaled coat of arms.
DEXTER HAND, the right hand. PL xxxv., n. 32.
Azure, a dexter hand couped, argent ; name, Brome.
DEXTER BASE is the right side of the base, repre-
sented by the letter G. See PL i.
DEXTER CHIEF is the angle on the right-hand side
of the chief represented by the letter A. See PL I.
DEXTER WING. The right wing.
DIA-DIS.] of Technical Terms. 123
DIAMOND is a precious stone, which in heraldry signi-
fies the colour sable or black.
DIAPERED is dividing the field in panes like fret-
work, and filling the same with a variety of figures,
according to the fancy of the painter. PI. xxxvm.,
n. 14. Care must be taken that no ornament is used
which can possibly be confounded with an heraldic
DIFFAME. See DEFAMED.
DIFFERENCE is certain figures added to coats of arms,
to distinguish one branch of a family from another, and
how distant younger branches are from the elder. See
DISTINCTION OF HOUSES.
DIMINUTIVES. The pale's diminutives are the PALLET
and ENDORSE; the lend has the GARTER, COST, and
RIBBON ; the bar has the CLOSET, BARRULET, and BAR-
GEMEL ; the chevron has the CHEVRONEL and COUPLE-
CLOSE ; the bend sinister has the SCARPE and BATON ; the
bordure has the ORLE and TRESSURE ; the quarter has
the CANTON ; the flanch has the FLASQUE and VOIDER.
See each in its respective place.
DISMEMBERED signifies a cross, or other thing, cut in
pieces, and set up at a small distance, but keeping the
form of the figure. See PI. xxxvi., n. 9. See a
lion dismembered, PL xxxv., n. 14. Or, a lion ram-
pant gules, dismembered, within a double tressure, flory,
counter-flory of the second; name, Maitland.
DISPLAYED, for the wings of a bird when they are
expanded, as in the example, an eagle displayed. PI. ix.,
DISTILLATORY, double-armed with two worms and
bolt-receivers on fire, being part of the arms of the
Distillers' Company. PL xxv., n. 14.
124: Dictionary [DIS.
DISTINCTIONS OF HOUSES. These differences serve
to inform us from what line the bearer of each is de-
scended: these distinctions began about the time of
Eichard the Second (according to Camden Clarencieux).
Fig. 1, is the label for the first son.
Fig. 2, the crescent for the second son.
Fig. 3, the mullet for the third son.
Fig. 4, the martlet for the fourth son.
Fig. 5, the annulet for the fifth son.
Fig. 6, the fleur-de-lis for the sixth son.
Fig. 7, a rose for the seventh son.
Fig. 8, a cross moline for the eighth son.
Fig. 9, a double quatrefoil for the ninth son.
By tliese distinctions every brother or house ought to
observe his or its due difference.
v SECOND HOUSE.
V. Fig. 1, the crescent with the label on it for the first son
) of the second son.
Fig. 2, the crescent on the crescent for the second son
\ of the second son of the first house, and so on. See
sgl! The distinctions made use of for differencing the
several princes and princesses of the blood royal of
England are generally labels, variously charged.
DISVELOPED signifies displayed; as colours flying,
or spread out, are in heraldry often said to be dis-
veloped. See PI. v., n. 1. Wyrley, noted in the life
and death of the Capitaine de Bur, says, " Withthreaten-
DOG-DOU.] of Technical Terms. 125
ing ax in hand I was at hand ; and my disvelloped penon
DOGE or VENICE, CROWN OF, PI. XLV., n. 20.
DOGS, of various kinds are common in heraldry. See
TALBOT, ALANT, &c. Or, a fess dancette between three
talbots passant, sable ; name, Carrach
DOLPHIN is reckoned the king of fishes, and is used
in several coats of arms. The ancients invariably
represent the dolphin with its back greatly incurvated.
In their leaps out of the water they assume this form,
but their natural shape is straight, the back being but
slightly incurvated. PI. xxviii., n. 2. The example in
blazon is termed a dolphin naiant embowed ; but when a
dolphin appears in a coat straight, it is then termed a
dolphin extended naiant ; when it is placed perpendicular,
with its body in the form of a letter S, it is called
springing and hauriant ; but it is most usually blazoned a
hauriant dolphin torqued. Azure, a dolphin hauriant
embowed, argent ; name, Fitz- James.
DORMANT signifies sleeping, with the head resting on
the fore-paws. PI. vin., n. 19. Or, three lions dormant
in pale, sable ; name, Lloyd.
DOSSER. See WATER-BOUGET.
DOUBLE DAXCETTE, a bend ; according to Leigh, the
bend double dancette is a mark of bastardy. See PL
xxiv., n. 13. Carter has this example, viz., azure, a
bend double dancette, argent ; name, Lories ; but makes
no mention of the mark of bastardy.
DOUBLE-HEADED (A LION). This instance is from
Leigh, who says the bearer did homage to two princes
(who both bore a lion rampant), for certain lands, by
bearing a lion rampant with two heads, signifying the
two princes he homaged. A fair example of the stories
126 Dictionary [DOU-DRA.
invented to account for singular charges in ancient
coats, the true reason for their assumption being lost
sight of. PL xxxii., n. 19. Or, a lion, double-headed,
azure ; name, Sir John Mason.
DOUBLE - TAILED, a lion rampant, double - tailed.
PL xxxii., n. 18. Or, a lion doubled - tailed or queued,
azure; name, Wandesford.
DOUBLE-MTCHY, A CROSS, each extremity having two
points. PL xxxvii., n. 7.
DOUBLE-PASTED, A CROSS. PL xxxvi., n. 16. Azure,
a cross double-parted, argent ; name, Doubler, of Cheshire.
DOUBLE-PLUME, of ostrich-feathers, is generally com-
posed of five at bottom, and four at top. PL xxxii.,
DOUBLE EOSE. See PL xxxvii., n. 21.
DOUBLE TRESSURE, two tressures, one within the
other. See PL xix., n. 9.
DOUBLE QUATREFOIL. The double quatrefoil is used
as a distinction for the ninth brother. PL XLII., n. 9.
DOUBLINGS are the linings of robes or mantles of
state, or the mantlings in achievements.
DOVE DISPLAYED in the glory of the sun. PL xxxix.,
n. 12. This bearing is a part of the arms of the Sta-
DOVE-TAIL, one of the partition lines, wherein two
different tinctures are set within one another, in the
form of doves' tails or wedges. PL in.
DRAGON, an imaginary monster, used in heraldry, both
in coats, crests, and supporters. PL vin., n. 1. Gules, three
dragons passant, in pale ermine ; name, filossun.
DRAGON'S HEAD, in heraldry is the colour tenne, or
orange colour. Obsolete, if ever used.
DRAGON'S TAIL, in heraldry, is the term for sanguine
DRA-ECL.] of Technical Terms. 127
or murrey, the colour of blood, or mulberry juice, also
DRAWING-IRON, an instrument used by wire-drawers,
and part of their armorial ensign. See PL xxxvn.,
DUCAL CORONET. See CROWNS and CORONETS of
DUCIPER, a term for a cap of maintenance.
DUN-FLY. See GAD-FLY.
EAGLE. The eagle was the tutelary bird and ensign
of the Romans. Azure, an eagle displayed, argent, armed
gules; name, Cotton.
SPREAD EAGLE signifies an eagle with two heads, as
the example ; but it is more heraldic to say, an eagle
with two heads, displayed. PI. xxxi., n. 31. According
to Porney the reason why the Emperor of Germany bore
an eagle with two necks is this : on the union of the
kingdom of Eomania, now a province of Turkey in
Europe, its arms, which were an eagle displayed sable,
being the same as those of the emperor, were united
into one body, leaving it two necks, as they are still
borne by the Emperor of Austria ; but there is also the
double-headed Eagle of the Emperor of all the Eussias
to account for.
EAGLET : when there are more than one eagle in a
coat without some ordinary between them, then in
blazon they are termed eaglets, or young eagles.
EARL'S CORONET. See CROWNS and CORONETS of
EASTERN CROWN, so termed from its being like that
formerly worn by the Jewish kings ; it was made of
gold, with rays about it, as the example. PI. XLV. n., 2.
ECLIPSED, the term used when the sun or moon is
128 Dictionary [EEL-ENA.
either partially or wholly obscured, the face and rays
EEL-SPEAR, an instrument used by fishermen for
taking of eels. PI. XXVIIL, n. 21. Sable, a chevron be-
tween three eel-spears, argent ; name, Stratele.
EGUISEE, A CROSS, is that which has the two angles
at the ends cut off so as to terminate in points.
PI. XXXVIL, n. 3.
EIGHTFOIL, or double quatrefoil is eight-leaved grass.
Sylvanus Morgan gives this as a difference of the ninth
branch of a family. See PL XLII., n. 9.
ELECTORAL CROWN is a scarlet cap, faced with ermine,
diademed with half a circle of gold, set with pearls, sup-
porting a globe, with a cross of gold on the top.
PL XLV., n. 15.
ELEPHANT. PL xxxi., n. 11. Gules, an elephant pas-
sant argent, armed or ; name, Elphinstone.
ELEVATED, as wings elevated, signifies the points of
them turned upwards. See PL x., n. 1.
EMBATTLED. See IMBATTLED.
EMBOWED, a term for anything bent or crooked like
a bow, as the dolphin. PL x., n. 6. A sinister arm
couped at the shoulder, embowed. See PL XL., n. 18.
EMBRUED signifies a weapon, &c., that is bloody,
viz., a spear-head, embrued gules. See IMBRUED.
EMERALD, a stone : it signifies in heraldry the colour
vert or green.
EMEW of the heralds, is the bird called by the natu-
ENALTJRON, for a border charged with birds. The
blazon would be more plain, and better understood, by
naming the number ; thus, on a border azure, eight mart-
lets or. PL xxxiv., n. 9.
END-EXT.] of Technical Terms. 129
ENDORSE is the fourth of the pale, seldom borne but
when a pale is between two of them. PI. iv., n. 4.
ENDORSED, two things placed back to back ; as two
lions, or two keys, endorsed. PI. XL., n. 16.
ENTILED : when the head of a man, or beast, or any
other charge, is placed on the blade of a sword, the
sword is said to be enfiled with a head, &c.
ENGRAILED, a line of partition, by which ordinaries
are diversified, composed of semicircles, the teeth or
points of which enter the field. PI. in. Also a bordure.
See PI. v., n. 10.
ENGROSSING-BLOCK, a tool made use of by the wire-
drawers. PI. xxiv., n. 14.
ENHANCED, is when an ordinary is placed above its
usual situation, which chiefly happens to the bend and
its diminutives, viz., argent, three bendlets enhanced
gules ; name, Byron. PI. xxxv., n. 29.
ENGOULEE, A CROSS, a term for crosses, saltires, &c.,
when their extremities enter the mouths of lions,
leopards, &c. PI. xxxvu., n. 23.
EMMANCHE. See MANCHE.
ENSIGNED, signifies borne on or over, by way of
ornament ; as in the example, a mans heart gules, en-
signed with a crown or. See PI. xni., n32.
ENTE signifies grafted or ingrafted. This term is
used in blazoning the fourth grand quarter of his late
Majesty's arms, viz., Brunswick and Lunenburgh impaled
with Saxony ente-en-pointe, that is, grafted in point.
ENTOYER, for a bordure charged with dead or arti-
ficial things, to the number of eight. PI. xxxvin.,
n. 13. The most approved method is to say, argent, a
border sable charged icith eight plates, mentioning their
130 Dictionary [ENT ERM.
ENTRAILED, A CROSS. PI. XXXVIL, n. 20. Leigh
says, the colour need not be named, for it is always
sable. Or, on a chevron, sable, a fleur-de-lis accompanied
by two stags' heads caboshed, between three crosses, en-
trailed of the second; name, Carver. See PL xxxvu.,
ENURNEY, for a bordure charged with beasts. PL
xxxvui., n. 10. The same may be observed here as
before to the term entoyer, viz., that the more intelli-
gible blazon is, argent, a border gules, charged with eight
lions passant of the first.
ENVELOPED. See ENWRAPPED.
ENWRAPPED, viz., a child's head couped below the
shoulders, enwrapped about the neck with a snake :
some say enveloped. PI. xvin., n. 21.
EPAULIER, a shoulder-plate of armour.
ERADICATED, a term for a tree or plant torn up by
the root. See PI. xin., n. 22.
ERASED is when the head or limb of any creature is
violently torn from the body, so that it appears jagged.
PL VIIL, n. 17. Argent, a lions head erased, gules ; name,
Note. When boars', bears', wolves', whales', and otters
heads are erased close to the head, as the example,
PL xxxvui., n. 4, it is termed erased close, to dis-
tinguish it from a head erased, as the boar's head,
PL xxxvui., n. 5, which exhibits a portion of the neck.
ERECT signifies anything upright or perpendicularly
elevated, as PL x., n. 1.
ERMINE is black spots on a white field. PL n., n. 1.
ERMINE, A CROSS, or four ermine-spots in cross.
PL vi., n. 13.
ERMINES is white spots on a black field. PL n.
ERH-ESC.] of Technical Terms. 131
ERMINITES is the field white, and the spots black,
with one red hair on each side.
ERMINOIS is the field gold, and the spots black.
PL ii. 5 n. 3.
The French say, d'or seme d'hermines de sable.
ESCALLOP-SHELL was the pilgrims' ensign in their
expeditions and pilgrimages to holy places : they were
worn on their hoods and hats, and were of such a dis-
tinguishing character that Pope Alexander the Fourth,
by a bull, forbade the use of them but to pilgrims
who were truly noble. They are of frequent use in
armoury. PI. xxvii., n. 2. Sable an escallop-shell argent ;
ESCARBUNCLE, a precious stone, resembling a burning
coal in its lustre and colour. The ancient heralds drew
it as in the plate, to express those rays which issue from
the centre, which is the stone. PL vn., n. 18.
ESCROL. See SCROLL.
ESCUTCHEON (the) represents the original shield,
buckler, or target, used in war, on which, under every
variety of shape, arms were formerly, and still are
blazoned. When shields ceased to be employed, their
form was still retained as the field on which coat-
armour is depicted ; but that form has varied consider-
ably among different nations, at different periods, and
even at the same time. The oldest heraldic escut-
cheons are termed Norman, on account of the shape
generally used by that people. They resemble a Gothic
arch reversed ; the form of which became broader in
the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, and has re-
mained so to this day, when it is again the favourite
shape. The escutcheons of maids, widows, and such
as are born ladies, and are married to private gentle-
132 Dictionary [ESC-FAL.
men, are always in the form of a lozenge or diamond ;
which is supposed to refer to the spindle, as em-
blematic of virginity.
ESCUTCHEON OP PRETENCE is that escutcheon in which
a man bears the coat of arms of his wife, being an
heiress; it is placed in the centre of the man's coat,
and thereby shows his pretensions to her lands, by
his marriage, accrued to him and the heirs of his body.
See PI. XL., n. 4.
ESCUTCHEON, POINTS or THE, see ante, p. 10, and Table I.
ESPEIT, ST., CROSS OF. This cross is worn by the
knights of that order in France. PI. xxxvi., n. 22.
ESTOILE, or star, differs from the mullet by having
six waved points ; those of the mullet consisting of
five plain points. PI. vn., n. 2. Guillim says, if the
number of points be more than six, the number must
EXPANDED, or EXPANSED. See DISPLAYED.
EYED is a term used in speaking of the spots re-
sembling eyes in the peacock's tail.
EYES are borne in armoury : barry nebule of six pieces,
azure and qrgent on a chief of the second, thrte eyes gules ;
name, De la Hay, of Ireland.
FACE, a term used for FESS.
FALCHION, a kind of broad-sword. PI. xxv., n. 10.
See another, PI. xxx., n. 17, termed an ancient English
FALCON, in heraldry, is usually represented with
bells tied on his legs ; when decorated with hood, bells,
virols (or rings), and leashes, then in blazon he is
said to be hooded, belled, jessed, and leashed, and the
colours thereof must be named. PI. ix., n. 20. Sable, a
falcon with wings expanded or ; name, Peche, of Sussex.
FAN-FET.] of Technical Terms. 133
FAN. See WINNOWING BASKET.
FANG-TOOTH. See PI. xxix., n. 5. Azure, three fang
teeth in fess or ; name, Bathor.
FEE DE FOUECHETTE, A CROSS ; so termed, from its
having at each end a forked iron, like that formerly used
by soldiers to rest their muskets on. PI. xxxvn., n. 18,
FEB DE MOLINE. See MILL-BIND.
FEBMAILE, or FEEMEATJ, signifies a buckle.
FESS POINT is the centre of the escutcheon. See PI. i.,
FESS, one of the honourable ordinaries, and contains
a third of the field ; some authors say it was a belt of
honour, given as a reward by kings, &c., for services in
the army. PI. iv., n. 13.
FESS BEETESSED has the same indents as counter-em-
battled ; but the example has both sides equal to each
other. PI. XL., n. 6. Or a fess bretessed gules; name,
Crebott, of Sussex.
PEE FESS is when the field or charge is equally
divided by a horizontal line. Party per fess or and
azure ; name, Zusto, of Venice. PI. in., n. 3.
PEE FESS and PALE signifies the field to be divided
into three parts by the fess line, and the pale line,
from the fess point to the middle bass point. PI.
XXXVIIL, n. 30.
FESSE TAEGET, an ancient term for an escutcheon of
FESSELY, an ancient term for part y per fess.
FESSWAYS, or FESSWISE, implies any charge placed or
borne in fess, that is, in a horizontal line across the
field, or if a crest, on the wreath.
FETLOCK, or FETTEELOCK, a horse fetlock. PI. xxv.,
1 34 Dictionary [FET-FIR.
FETTERED. See SPANCELLED.
FIELD is the surface of the escutcheon or shield,
which contains the charge or charges, and must be the
first thing mentioned in blazoning.
FIGURED, a term sometimes used in blazoning those
bearings which are depicted with a human face, as
PI. XIIL, n. 25.
FILE. See LABEL.
FILLET is an ordinary, which, according to Guillim,
contains the fourth part of a chief.
FIMBRIATED, A CROSS, having a narrow bordure or
hem, of another tincture. See PI. xxxvii., n. 2.
FIRE, FLAMES OF. Argent, a chevron voided, azure,
between three flames of fire proper; name, Wells. PI. XIIL,
FIRE-BALL, grenade or bomb, inflamed proper. PL
xxvii., n. 14.
FIRE-BEACON, a machine formerly used to give notice
of the approach of an enemy, and to alarm the country.
This is by some ancient heralds termed a rack-pole
beacon. See PI. xxvii., n. 4. PI. xxxiv., n. 16.
There is another figure also termed by some ancient
writers a fire-beacon; but Edrnondson thinks it (see
the example, PL xxxvm., n. 8,) should be blazoned, a
fire-chest : such chests made of iron, and filled with fire,
anciently used to warm the inside of large halls.
FIRE-BRAND, viz., a fire-brand inflamed proper. PL
xxxv., n. 27. Fire-brands in armoury are generally
FIRE-BUCKET, PL xxx., n. 20. Argent three fire-
buckets sable ; name, Tame.
FIRME, a term for a cross pattee throughout. See
PL xxxix., n. 9.
FIS-FLE.] of Technical Terms. 135
FISH-HOOK, PI. xxx., n. 15. Sable, a chevron, 'be-
tween three fish-hooks argent ; name, Medville.
FISH- WHEEL, PL xxxn., n. 30. Or, between a chevron,
three fish-wheels sable ; name, Foleborne.
FITCHY, FITCHEE, or FITCHED, a term used for
crosses, when the lower branch ends in a sharp point
(French fichee, fixed) ; supposed to have been first so
sharpened to enable the primitive Christians to fix the
cross in the ground for devotion ; viz., a cross-crosslet
fitcliy, as PI. vi., n. 11.
FITCHY (DOUBLE), is a cross, each extremity of whicn
has two points. PI. xxxvn., n. 7.
FLANCHES. The flanch is composed of an arched
line, drawn from the upper angle of the escutcheon to
the base point of one side, and so on to the other, the
arches almost meeting in the middle of the field.
Flanches are never borne single, but in couples, and
always in the flanks of the shield. PI. v., n. 2. Ermine,
a star of eight rays or, between two flanches sable ; name,
Sir John Hobart, of Norfolk.
FLANK is that part of an escutcheon which is between
the chief and the base.
FLASQUES are like the flanch, but smaller, and not so
circular. PI. xxxv., n. 6. Gibbon affirms that the
flasque and the flanch are one and the same.
FLAX-BREAKER. See HEMP BREAK.
FLEAM, an instrument used by farriers in bleeding
horses : some ancient heralds represent them as PL
xxiv., n. 16. Others term them crampoons, or cramps
of iron, for fixing blocks of stone together.
FLEAM, an ancient lancet, formerly borne in the
arms of the Company of Barber-Surgeons. PL xxxni.,
136 Dictionary [FLE-FLO.
FLEECE, the woolly skin of a sheep suspended from
the middle, by a ring in a collar or band. See GOLDEN
FLESH-POT, a three-legged iron pot. See PI. xxvii.,
n. 15. Argent, three flesh-pots gules, with two handles ;
. FLEXED, or FLECTED, signifies bowed or bent, as the
example, PI. xin., n. 21, viz.: three dexter arms con-
joined at the shoulders, and flexed in triangle or, with the
fists clenched proper ; name, Tremaine.
FLEUK-DE-LIS : by some this emblem is supposed to
represent the lily, or flower of the iris or flag; but
it has only three leaves, by which it certainly differs
from the lily of the garden, that having always five :
others suppose it to be the top of a sceptre ; some the
head of the French battle-axe ; others, the iron head of
a javelin used by the ancient French. Dr. Orwade says,
many deceased antiquaries, as well as some of the
present day, have thought, and do think, that it was
originally meant to represent the flower from which it
derives its name.* PI. xxvii., n. 19. Azure, a fleur-de-
lis argent; name, Digby.
FLEURY, A CROSS. This cross is differenced from the
cross-flory, by its having a line between the ends of
the cross and the flowers, which that has not. PI.
xxxvi., n. 32.
FLOAT, an instrument used by the bowyers, and
borne as part of their armorial ensign. PI. xxiv., n. 10.
FLOOR, an Irish term for a large flounder.
FLORY signifies flowered with the French lily.
* It appears first heraldically on the seals and coins of Louis
VII. of France, and was most probably a rebus signifying,
" Flour de Louis." ED.
FLO-FRE.] of Technical Terms. 137
FLORY, A CROSS, is one the extremities of which end
in fleurs-de-lis : it differs from the patonce, by having
the flowers at the ends circumflex, and turning down.
PL vi., n. 3. Azure, a cross-flory argent ; name, Florence.
FLOTANT, to express anything flying in the air, as a
FLYING FISH. This fish, if we except its head and
flat back, has, in the form of its body, a great resem-
blance to the herring. The scales are large and
silvery ; the pectoral fins are very long ; and the dorsal
fin is small, and placed near the tail, which is forked.
PI. xxxiii., n. 8.
FORCENE signifies a horse rearing or standing on his
hinder legs. PL xxvi., n. 4.
FORMEE. See PATTEE.
FOREIGN CROWNS. See CROWNS, FOREIGN.
FOUNTAIN: we find fountains borne by Stourton of
Stourton, being a bend between six fountains, in signi-
fication of six springs, whereof the river Stoure, in
Wiltshire, hath its beginning, and passeth along to
Stourton, the head of that barony. The fountain in
ancient heraldry was always drawn as a roundle, barry
wavy of six, argent and azure.
FOURCHEE, A CROSS, signifies forked at the ends, or
divided. PL xxvii., n. 8. Per pale, or and vert, a cross
fourchee gules; name, Sir John Hingham.
Fox. PL xxvi., n. 15.
FRACTED, broken asunder ; as, a globe fracted.
FRAISIER, in French, signifies a strawberry-plant.
This word is used by the heralds of Scotland in
blazoning the coat of Fraser, in allusion to the family
name. It is by other heralds termed a cinque-foil.
FRENCH CROWN is a circle, decorated with stones,
138 Dictionary [FBE-GAD.
and heightened up with eight arched diadems, arising
from as many fleurs-de-lis, that conjoin at the top under
a fleur-de-lis, all of gold. PI. XLV., n. 7.
FRET, a figure resembling two sticks lying saltire-
wise, and interlaced- within a mascle, by some termed
Harington's Knot (being also the coat of Harington ;
argent a fret sable), and by others the Herald's True
Lover's Knot. PL v., n. 6. Sable a fret or; name, Mal-
FRETTED,. A CROSS, fretted and pointed in form of
five mascles. PL xxxvi., n. 13.
FRETTED IN TRIANGLE. PL xxxi., n. 28. Azure,
three trouts, fretted in triangle, heads or, tails argent;
FRETTY. See the example, PL v., n. 24.
FRUCTED, a term given in blazon to all trees bearing
FURCHY, or FOURCHEE, signifies forked.
FURNISHED, a term applied to a horse when bridled,
saddled, and completely caparisoned.
FURS are used as the artificial trimming or furring
of robes and garments of the nobility, and likewise as
an ornament in coat-armour. See further of FURS,
ante, p. 12.
FUSIL, derived from the French word, fusee, a spindle;
it is longer and more acute than the lozenge. PL vi.,
n. 18. Ermine, three fusils infesse sable; name, Pigot.
FUSIL, or a spindle of yarn. PL xxxiv., n. 14.
FUSILLY is when the field or charge is filled with
fusils. PL xxxvin., n. 28. Fusilly argent and gules is
the arms of Grimaldi de Monaco, in Genoa.
GADS are plates of steel and borne as part of the
arms of the Ironmongers' Company. PL xxiv., n. 11.
GAD-GAR.] of Technical Terms. 139
GAD-BEE, or GAD-FLY; this fly is by some called
the dun-fly, by others the horse-fly, and is that which in
summer so much torments cattle. Sable, three gad-bees
volant, argent ; name, Burninghill. PL xxvi., n. 23.
GALLEY. See LYMPHAD.
GAL-TRAPS, or CALTRAPS, by some supposed to be a
corruption of cAetW-trap, and by others thought to
have been named gal or #aZ/-traps, from their applica-
tion to the purpose of galling horses, are implements
used in war, to prevent or retard the advance of cavalry.
They are made of iron, with four points, so formed
that, whichever way they are placed, one point will
always be erect. These implements being strewed on
the ground over which the enemy's cavalry has to pass,
have been found effectually to retard, if not prevent,
any pursuit of a retreating army. They are frequently
met with in the armorial ensigns of cavalry officers, as
in those of Farrington, bart., whose ancestor was
general of artillery. PI. vii., n. 3. Argent, three gal-
traps, sable ; name, Trapps.
GAME, so termed when the whole fore-leg of a lion,
or other beast, is borne in arms. See PL xin., n. 1.
If it is couped or erased near the middle joint, then it
is called a paw. See PL xiv., n. 22.
GARB, a sheaf of wheat or any other grain : if the
blazon is "a garb " only, wheat is always understood ;
in other cases the kind of grain must be expressed, as
" a garb of oats," &c. PL vn., n. 14.
GARDANT, signifies full-faced, looking right forward.
PL ix., n. 1.*
* It is now too late to attempt the correction of the terms
gardant and regardant. It is quite clear that the former is only
an abbreviation of the latter, a lion regarding, or looking at you.
140 Dictionary [GAR-GIM.
GARLAND. See CHAPLET.
GARNISHED signifies ornamented, and is a term ap-
plied to ornaments set on any charge whatsoever.
GARTER, the half of a bendlet. PI. iv., n. 7.
GAUNTLET, a glove plated with steel, that covered the
hand of a cavalier, when armed cap-a-pie, at first with-
out separation of the fingers, in which early form it is
seen in charges. PI. xxxiv., n. 21, and PI. xxix., n. 24.
In blazon, the word dexter or sinister must be expressed,
as the charge may happen to be.
AT GAZE, when a beast of chase, as the hart, is de-
picted as afirontee, or full-faced. PI. ix., n. 13.
GED, a Scotch term for the fish called a pike. Azure,
three geds liauriant argent ; name, Ged.
GEMELLS, and GEMEWS. See BAR-GEMELS.
GEM-RING, a ring set with a gem or precious stone.
GENET, a small animal of the fox species, but not
bigger than a weasel, occasionally met with in
GENOUILIER, a piece of armour that covers the knees.
GERATTIE, an ancient term for powderings.
GILLY-FLOWER, properly July flower, is a species of
aromatic carnation. PI. xxiv., n. 12. Argent, three
gilly-flowers, slipped proper ; name, Jorney.
GIMBAL-RINGS. PI. xxx., n. 8. Argent, on a bend
sable, three triple gimbal-rings or ; name, HawberJce, of
Leicestershire. Sylvanus Morgan says, it would be
more heraldic to say, three annulets interlaced in triangle.
GIMMAL, or GEMMOW RING, is a ring of double hoops
Regardant is now only applied to a lion looking behind him ;
an attitude which would be more correctly described by Eetro-
gardant, as we, indeed, find the Latin for it, Retrospiciens.
GIR-GOR.] of Technical Terms. 141
made to play into each other, and so to join two hands,
and thus serves for a wedding-ring, which pairs the
parties. The name is derived from Gemellus, Latin ;
GIRAFFE. See CAMELOPARDALIS.
GIRON. See GYRON.
GLAIVE, or GLEAVE. See JAVELIN.
GLAZIERS' NIPPERS, or grater, a tool used by glaziers,
and part of the arms of the Glaziers' Company.
PL xxxni., n. 4.
GLIDING ; this term is used for serpents, snakes, or
adders, when moving forward fesswise.
GOBONY, or GOBONATED, is the same as company, viz.,
it is always of one row of squares and no more. PL v.,
GOLDEN FLEECE is the skin of a sheep, with its head
and feet, hung up at its middle by a ring in a collar,
all gold, as the example, PL xxvi., n. 8 : it is worn by
the knights of that order in Spain, instituted by Philip,
Duke of Burgundy.
GOLPS are roundles of the purple tincture. PL vni.,
GONFANNON, the banner, standard, or ensign of the
Eoman Catholic Church, anciently always carried in
the Popes' armies. The gonfannon is borne as an
armorial figure, or common charge, by families abroad,
on account of some of the family having been gon-
fannoniers, i. e., standard-bearers to the church, as the
Counts of Auvergne, in France. Or, a gonfannon gules,
fringed vert. PL xxsiv., n. 28.
GORGE, a term in Leigh for a water-bouget.
GORGED, a term used to describe a lion or other
animal having a crown by way of collar to its neck.
142 Dictionary [GOR-GBI.
GOEGET, a piece of armour for the neck.
GRADIENT, a term applied to a tortoise walking.
GKAIN-TREE. PI. XXXITI., n. 20. Three sprigs of
this tree is the crest of the Dyers' Company.
GRAND SEIGNIOE'S CEOWN is a turban, enriched with
pearls and diamonds. PI. XLV., n. 6.
GRAPPLING-IRON. PI. xxxn., n. 28. Azure, a chevron
or, between three grappling-irons of three flukes, double-
ringed at the top ; name, Stewins.
GEASSHOPPEE. Amongst the Athenians grasshoppers
were so much esteemed, that they wore gold ones in
their hair, to denote their national antiquity, or that,
like the CicadaB, they were the first-born of the earth.
Among the Egyptians, the hieroglyphic of music.
PI. xxvii., n. 5.
GEAY, a term for a badger. See BAD GEE.
GEEAVE, that part of armour that covers the leg from
the knee to the foot.
GREY-HOUND. See PI. xxix., n. 20.
GEICES, young wild boars ; sometimes boars are bla-
zoned Grices, in allusion to the bearer's name, Grice.
GEIDIEON. PI. xxxv., n. 19. Argent, a chevron be-
tween three gridirons, sable ; names, Laurence and Scott.
GBIECES signifies steps, viz., a cross on three grieces.
See PI. xxxvi., n. 19.
GRIFFIN, an imaginary animal, compounded of the
eagle and the lion. As a charge, it is common on
ancient arms. Guillim blazons it rampant, alleging
that any fierce animal may be so blazoned as well as
the lion ; but segreant is the term generally used
instead of rampant. PI. xxxv., n. 13. Argent, a griffin
segreant azure, beaked or ; name, Culcheth.
GRIFFIN, MALE : this chimerical creature is half an
GBI-GYR.] of Technical Terms. 143
eagle and half a lion, having large ears, but no wings,
and rays of gold issuing from various parts of its body.
PI. xxxv., n. 2.
GRINGOLLEE, A CROSS, a term for crosses, saltiers, &c.,
whose extremities end with the heads of serpents.
PI. xxxvii., n. 12.
GRITTIE, a term for a shield composed equally of
metal and colour.
GOIDON, or GUIDHOMME. A small standard some-
times called an ANCIENT.
GULES signifies the colour red, and in engraving is
represented by perpendicular lines. PI. n. Ghul, in
the Persian language, signifies a rose, or rose-colour,
and the heraldic term is supposed to have been im-
ported from the East.
GUN-STONE, an ancient term for a pellet.
GURGES, or a whirlpool. This is the arms of the
family named Gorges. See PI. xxv., n. 6. The
whirlpool is always borne proper, therefore there is no
occasion for naming the field, because the whole is
azure and argent, and takes up all the field, representing
the rapid motion of the water turning round.
GUTTY, or guttee, from the Latin gutta, a drop, is
said of a field, or bearing, filled with drops. See PI. vm.
n. 8, and page 27.
GUZES are roundles of the sanguine murrey or blood-
GYRON, a Spanish word signifying a gore, gusset, or
triangular piece of cloth. PI. v., n. 1. Menestrier gives
examples of gyrons in the arms of Giron in Spain, of
which family are descended the Dukes of Ossone, who
carry three gyrons in their arms clearly to symbolise
their name ; but which, he says, represent three tri-
144 Dictionary [GYR-HAI.
angular pieces of stuff, or gussets, of the coat- armour of
Alphonsus the Sixth, King of Spain, who, fighting in
battle against the Moors, had his horse killed, and,
being in danger was rescued, and remounted, by Don
Roderico de Cissneres, who cut off three triangular
pieces, or gussets, of the king's coat-armour, which he
kept as a testimony, to show the king afterwards that
he was the man who saved him : for which the king
advanced him to honour, graced his armorial bearing
with three gyrons, PI. 6, n. 1 ; and adorned it with a
horse for a crest, to perpetuate to posterity the relief he
gave the king, another example of the practice of in-
venting stories to account for heraldic charges. Note.
When there is only one gyron in a coat, you may
blazon thus, argent, a gyron sable, without mentioning
the point from whence it issues, the dexter chief point
being the usual fixed place. But if it stand in any
other part of the shield, it must then be expressed.
GYRONNY is where a field is divided into six, eight,
ten, or twelve triangular parts, of two different tinctures,
and the points all uniting in the centre of the field ;
gyrons signify unity, because they are never borne
single. PI. v., n. 23. Gyronny of eight, argent and sable;
HABECK, an instrument used by the clothiers in dress-
ing cloth, two of them differing from each other in
form, as PI. xxv., n. 9. That on the dexter is copied
from the tool, which is invariably made in that form ;
the other, on the sinister, shows the form in which it
is painted in the arms of the Clothiers' Company.
HABERGEON, a short coat of mail, consisting of a
jacket without sleeves. PI. xxiv., n. 17.
HAIE. See WE ARE.
HAL-HAR.] ' of Technical Terms. 145
HALF-BELT. PI. xxiv., n. 3. Gules, two "half-belts
and buckles, argent ; name, Pelham.
HALF-SPEAR, a term for a spear with a short handle.
PL xxiv., n. 18.
HALF-SPADE. Azure, three half-spades or, the sides of
the spade to the sinister. PL xxv., n. 16 ; name, Daven-
HAND DEXTER, the right hand. PL xxxv., n. 32.
HAND SINISTER, the left hand. PL xxxv., n. 33.
Argent, three sinister hands, couped at the wrist gules;
HARP, the well-known musical instrument, the tones
of which are produced from strings struck with the
fingers. It appears to have been used from the earliest
antiquity among the Hebrews, Greeks, and Eomans,
though differing considerably in shape and in the
number of its strings. The harp was the favourite
musical instrument of the Britons and other Northern
nations in the middle ages ; and the high estimation in
which it was held by the Welch and Irish is proverbial.
It is naturally, therefore, very frequently met with as
an armorial bearing, and is usually represented as
PL xxxii., n. 17. The arms of the kingdom of Ireland
are, azure, a harp or, stringed argent, now introduced
into the royal achievement of Great Britain and Ire-
HARPOON, an instrument used for spearing whales.
PL xxv., n. 7.
HARPY, a poetical monster, feigned to have the face
and breast of a virgin, and body and legs like a vulture
PL viii., n. 2. Azure, a harpy with her wings disclosed,
her hair flotant or, armed of the same. This coat stands
in Huntingdon church.
146 Dictionary [HAR-HEA.
HAKINGTON KNOT, a badge of the family of Ha-
rington. See PI. xxxn., n. 33. And also under FRET.
HARROWS are instruments used in husbandry. Ermine,
three triangular harrows, conjoined in the nombril point,
gules, with a wreath argent and of the second, toothed or ;
name, Harrow. PI. XLI., n. 11.
HART, a stag ; properly one in its sixth year.
HARVEST-FLY. Sable, a harvest-fly in pale, volant,
argent; name, Bolowre. PI. xxvi., n. 22.
HAT-BAND. PI. xxx., n. 21. Chiles, a chevron between
three hat-bands argent ; name, Maynes.
HATCHMENT is the coat of arms of a person dead,
usually placed on the front of a house. See HATCH-
MENTS, PI. xx.
HAUBERK, a coat of mail.
HAURIANT, a term applied to fishes when represented
palewise or erect, as if they were refreshing themselves
by sucking in the air. PI. x., n. 4.
HAWK, a bird of prey, and for its size a very bold
and courageous bird, much used in heraldry. PL ix.,
HAWK'S BELL. PI. xxxi., n. 35. Or, on afess azure,
three hawks' bells of the first ; name, PlanJce.
HAWK'S LURE. See LURE.
HAY-FORK. PI. xxvm., n. 8. Argent, a hay-fork
between three mullets, sable, is the arms of Conyngham.
This bearing, also called a SHAKE-FORK, is more
properly termed by the French a Pal-fourcha, i. e., a
Pale couped, forked, and pointed. We suspect that
the appellation hay or shake fork is of popular and not
HEAD IN PROFILE ; the head and side face couped at
the neck. See PI. XL., n. 21.
HEA-HEM.] of Technical Terms. 147
HEART. The heart is blazoned a human heart, anct
sometimes a body heart. Gules, a chevron argent, between
three hearts or ; name, Frebody. See PI. xxix., n. 21.
HEA.TH-COCK. PI. xxxm., n. 18.
HEDGE-HOG. Azure, three hedgehogs or; names,
Abrahall and Herries. PI. xxvi., n. 6.
HELMETS. The helmet is armour for the head. The
ancients used to adorn them with some kind of mon-
strous device, as the head, mouth, or paw of a lion, to
make them appear more terrible. But the mediaeval
practice was to place upon them figures of animals, or
other objects 'by which they might be known, and
which they called crests. PI. XLII.
The first is the helmet of a king, prince, or royal
duke, and is of gold, fuilrfaced, with six bars.
The second is the helmet of a marquis, earl, viscount,
and baron, which is of steel in profile, open-faced, and
with five gold bars.
The third helmet, standing directly forward, with
the beaver open, and without bars, for a knight or
baronet. It should be of plain steel.
The fourth is a plain steel helmet sidewise, with the
beaver close, which is for all esquires and gentlemen.
If two helmets are to be placed on the top of a
shield, for the crests to be thereon, they must be
placed facing one another, as if two persons were
looking at each other ; but if three helmets are to be
placed as before-mentioned, the middlemost must stand
directly forward, and the other two on the side facing
towards it, like two persons looking upon the third.
HERCE. See HARROW.
HIACINTH. See HYACINTH.
HEMP-BREAK, an instrument to make hemp soft and
148 Dictionary [HIL-ICI.
fit for use. PI. xxxiv., n. 10. Argent, three hemp-breaks
sable ; name, Hampsone or Hamston, alderman of London.
HILTED, a term for the handle of a sword.
HOLY LAMB. See LAMB.
HONOUR-POINT is that point next above the centre
of the shield, and is expressed by the letter D, Table I.
HORSE. Frequently met with as a charge in
heraldry. Sable, a horse argent, bridled gules ; name,
Trott. PL xxxi., n. 8.
HORSE-SHOE. This is the arms of Okeham, a town
in Eutlandshire. In this town is an ancient custom,
if any nobleman enters the lordship, as an homage he
is to forfeit one of his horse's shoes, unless he redeem
it with money. See PI. xxix., n. 17. Argent, six horse-
shoes sable, 3, 2, 1 ; name, Ferrers.
HUMETTY, or HUMETTEE, signifies an ordinary, which
is cut off, and nowhere reaches the edges of the shield.
See PI. xxxvi., n. 14.
HUNTING-HORN. See BUGLE-HORN.
HURTS are roundles of the azure-colour. PI. vni.,
HYACINTH is a precious stone of a yellowish-red
hue, and in heraldry is used to express the colour
tenne. See COLOUR.
HYDRA, a fabulous creature, supposed to be a dragon
with seven heads, as PI. xxiv., n. 21. This is the
crest of Barret.
IBEX is an imaginary beast, in some respects like
the heraldic antelope, but with this difference, that it
has two straight horns projecting from the forehead,
serrated, or edged like a saw. PI. xxxn., n. 4.
ICICLES are in shape the same as gutty. Various
are the opinions concerning this bearing ; some term
IMB-INC.] of Technical Terms. 149
them clubs, others guttees reversed, and others icicles.
See PI. xxxv., n. 15.
IMBATTLED, or Crenelle, a term for the battlements
of towers, churches, and houses, and is one of the lines
of partition, PI. in. See an example, PI. XL., n. 4, a
fess gules imbattled.
IMBOWED. See EMBOWED.
IMBRUED signifies anything to be bloody, as spears'
heads, when spotted with blood, as the example. Sable,
a chevron between three spear-heads argent, their points
imbrued proper; name, Jefferies, of Brecknockshire.
PL xxxv., n. 35.
To IMPALE is to conjoin two coats of arms palewise :
women impale their arms with those of their husbands.
See PL XL., n. 3.
IMPERIAL CROWN is a circle of gold, adorned with
precious stones and pearls, heightened with fleurs-de-lis,
bordered and seeded with pearls, enclosing a sort of
mitre, divided in the centre, and between the two por-
tions an arched fillet, enriched with pearls, and sur-
mounted of a mound, whereon is a cross of pearls.
PL XLV., n. 3.
IMPERIALLY CROWNED, when any charge in arms,
crest, or supporters, is crowned with a regal crown.
INCENSED, a term for panthers, when represented
with fire issuing from their mouths and ears. See
PL xxxi., n. 7.
INCREMENT. See INCRESCENT.
INCRESCENT shows the state of the moon, from her
entrance into her first quarter, by having her horns
towards the right side of the shield. PL viz., n. 7.
Ermine, three increscents, gules ; name, Symmes, of Da-
ventry, in the county of Northampton.
150 Dictionary [IND-IXV.
INDENTED, one of the lines of partition, in shape the
same as dancette, but its teeth smaller, and the number
not limited. See PI. in., and argent, a border indented
azure. PI. v., n. 11.
INDIAN GOAT, or Assyrian goat, resembles the Eng-
lish goat, except that its horns are more bent, and the
ears like those of a talbot. PI. xxxiv., n. 2. These
beasts are the supporters of the arms of Viscount
INDORSED. This term is for wings or other charges
when placed back to back. See PI. xxxv., n. 16, viz.,
two wings indorsed. PI. XL., n. 16., two keys indorsed.
INESCUTCHEON, a small escutcheon, borne within the
shield, and usually placed in the fess-point. PI. v., n.
7. JErmine, an inescutcheon azure ; name, Rokeley.
INFAMED. See DEFAMED.
INFULA. See POPE'S CROWN.
INGRAILED. See ENGRAILED.
INK-FISH, See CUTTLE-FISH.
INK-MOLINE, or Ink de Moline. See MILLRINE.
In PRIDE. See PEACOCK.
INTER, the Latin for between.
INTERLACED ; when chevronels, annulets, rings, keys,
crescents, &c., are linked together, they are termed
interlaced, viz., three chevronels interlaced in base.
PI. xxxv., n. 30. A cross of four bastoons interlaced.
PI. xxxvi. , n. 15.
INVECTED, one of the lines of partition ; the same
form as engrailed, but the points of it turning inward
to the charge. PL in. See the difference in PI. xix.,
n. 14. Argent, a fess invected, gules, between three
torteaux. In the same place, n. 13, is argent on a fess
engrailed, gules, three leopards' faces, or.
INV-JES.] of Technical Terms. 151
INVERTED. Inverted denotes anything that is turned
the wrong way ; particularly wings are said to be
inverted when the points of them are down. PI. x.,
IRON KING, a tool used by the wire-drawers, and
borne as a part of their armorial ensign, PI. xxxiv.,
ISSUANT, or ISSUING, signifies the charge to be
coming out of the bottom of the chief, as the example.
Azure on a chief or, a demi-lion issuing gules ; name,
Markham. PI. x., n. 9.
JAMES, ST., CROSS OF, so termed because worn by the
knights of that order in Spain. PI. xxxvi., n. 23.
JAVELIN, or short spear, with a barbed point.
PI. xxxiv., n. 25.
JELLOP, JELLOPED, terms occasionally used in bla-
zonry to describe the comb of a cock, cockatrice, &c.,
when borne of a tincture different from that of the
JERSEY COMB, used by the wool-combers. PI. xxx.,
n. 2. Sable, three Jersey combs or, teeth argent ; name,
JERUSALEM, CROSS OF, so termed from Godfrey of
Bouillon's bearing argent, a cross-crosslet cantoned
with four crosses, or, in allusion to the five wounds of
Christ. PL xxxix., n. 13.
JESSANT signifies a lion or any beast rising or issu-
ing from the middle of a fess, as PI. xxxv., n. 26. The
common method of heraldic writers is a lion jessant of
a fess. But Edrnondson is clearly of opinion that it
should be blazoned a demi-lion jessant of a fess, as never
more than half the lion appears.
This term is also. used to express shooting forth, as
152 Dictionary [JES-KEY.
vegetables spring or shoot out, and occasionally to
signify throwing out, as fleurs-de-lis out of a leopard's
face ; for instance, sable, three leopards' faces jessant
fleurs-de-lis or ; for Morley of Sussex. PL xn., n. 20.
Edmondson says, an erroneous practice has long been
established among heralds, when showing the leopard's
face jessant de Us, of always turning the head bottom
upwards ; whereas the contrary position should be con-
stantly observed, unless otherwise directed by the words
of the blazon, viz., a leopard's face reversed, jessant
JESSED is a term used in blazoning a hawk or
falcon, whose jesses, or straps of leather that tie the
bells on the legs, are of a different tincture from the
JESSES, leather thongs, to tie the bells on the legs of
the hawk and falcon. They are sometimes represented
flotant, with rings at the end, as the example,
PI. xxxvii., n. 13. A hawk's leg erased at the thigh,
jessed and belled.
JEW'S HARP. PI. xxx., n. 11, as born in the arms
JOINANT. See CONJOINED.
JOWLOPPED describes the gills of a cock, when of a
different tincture from his head ; same as JELLOPED.
JULIAN, ST., CROSS OF, by some called a saltire crossed
at its extremities; by others a cross transposed.
PL xxxvii., n. 24. Argent, a Julian cross sable, for
Julian, of Lincolnshire.
JUPITER, one of the planets ; in heraldry it signifies
the colour azure, and in engraving is expressed by
KEYS INDORSED. PL XL., n. 16. Example, two
KIN-LAM.] of Technical Terms. 153
indorsed, tlie boics interlaced sable ; name, Masquenay, or
KING-FISHER. This beautiful bird is occasionally
met with in armorial bearings. PI. xvi., n. 2, or three
Icing -fishers proper ; name, Fisher.
KNOTS. Various kinds of knots are borne as badges
by several families. The principal varieties are
BOTTCHIER'S KNOT. PI. xxxn., n. 32.
BOWEN'S KNOT. PI. XXXVHI., n. 7.
DACRE'S KNOT. PI. xxxn., n. 35.
HARINGTON'S KNOT ; this is the usual heraldic fret,
and is a common bearing. PI. xxxn., n. 33.
LACT'S KNOT. PL xxxvii., n. 11.
STAFFORD'S KNOT. PI. xxxii., n. 31.
WAKE'S KNOT. PI. xxxii., n. 34.
LABEL. Used to difference the arms of the eldest
son from the younger ones. PI. v., n. 3. See PL x.,
n. 1, in the distinction of houses.
LABELS are also ribbons that hang down from a
mitre or coronet.
LACT'S KNOT. See PL xxxvii., n. 11.
LAMB, or Holy Lamb, passant, with a staff, cross
and banner, is a typical figure of Our Saviour, who is
understood to be that Lamb mentioned in the Apoca-
lypse of St. John. PL xxxi., n. 25.
LAMBEAUX, A CROSS, is a cross-pattee at the top, and
issuing out at the foot into three labels. PL xxxvi.,
n. 21. Gules, a cross lambeaux argent ; this is a Ger-
man coat ; name, EudetzJcer.
LAMBREQUIN is a mantle or hood, intervening be-
tween the helmet and crest, and always represented
flotant ; also a name formerly given to the points of
154 Dictionary [LAM-LEG.
LAMP. PI. xxviir., n. 12. Gules, a chevron, between
three lamps argent, with fire proper ; name, Farmer.
LANCE, or tilting-spear, argent on a quarter, a lance
in bend or; name, Knight. See PI. xxxiv., n. 6.
LANGUED (French langue, of langue, the tongue) is
a term for the tongues of beasts and birds, when of a
different tincture from that of the charge. All beasts
and birds (except they are tinctured gules) are langued
gules ; but when the beast is gules, he must be langued
and armed azure. This rule is never to be deviated
from, except in cases only where the blazon directs
that the beast should be langued of any other colour
or metal; and then such colour or metal must be
expressed. If a beast or bird is to be represented in
coat-armour, without either tongue or claws, you must
say, when blazoning, sans langue and arms.
LARMES, the French for tears ; see GUTTEE.
LATTICE. See TREILEE.
LAUREL is frequently met with as a bearing, as
well in wreaths and branches, as in sprigs and leaves.
LAVERPOT, or ewer, as borne in the arms of the
Founders' Company. PI. xxxiv., n. 6.
LAZARUS, ST., CROSS OF, worn by the knights of that
order. PI. xxxvi., n. 24.
LEASH, a tierce, or three of a kind ; as three bucks,
hares, &c. ; also a leathern thong, by which falconers
held the hawk on their hand : a term also applied to
the line attached to the collar of a greyhound or
LEATHER-BOTTLE, as borne in the arms of the Bottle-
makers' and Homers' Company. PI. xxx., n. 5.
LEGS IN ARMOUR, three legs in armour, conjoined in the
fess point, spurred and garnished or : this is the arms of
LEN-LIN.] of Technical Terms. 155
the Isle of Man. See PL XL., n. 1. Nisbet says,
"three legs of men, the device of the Sicilians, the
ancient possessors of the Isle of Man."
LENTALLY, an ancient term for parti/ per bend.
LEOPARD. This well-known animal is rarely seen
entire as a charge in ancient coats, and its name is
given to the lion in certain attitudes. See LION.
PI. xxxi., n. 30, presents us with a modern example.
Sable, three leopards rampant argent, spotted sable ; name,
Lynch. It is, however, probably, from the name, that
the Lynx was the animal originally represented in this
LEOPARD'S FACE. When the heads of leopards are
erased or couped at the neck, as Plate xxxv., n. 22,
they are blazoned by the word head, viz., a leopard's
head erased : but if no part of the neck appears, and
the position of the head is gardant, as PI. xxxv., n.
21, it is then blazoned a leopard's face, without men-
tioning the word gardant, which is always implied.
LEOPARD LIONE. See LION LEOPARDE.
LEVEL. PI. xxvii., n. 24. Azure, three levels with
their plummets or ; name, CoJbrand.
LEVER, a name sometimes given to the cormorant.
LILIES OF THE FLAG are those borne in the arms of
the kingdom of France. See FLEUR-DE-LIS.
LIMBECK, or STILL. Heralds term it an antique
limbeck ; this example is part of the Pewterers' arms,
PI. XXXIIL, n. 12.
LINED, having a line affixed to the collar of a dog or
other animal, which are frequently collared of one tinc-
ture, and lined, or chained, of another. The term is
also applied to the inner covering or lining of a mantle,
robe, cap, &c.
156 Dictionary [LIN-LIO.
LINES. See PARTITION LINES.
LION. The true heraldic lion, according to French
authors, is always to be represented in profile, or, as
the ancient heralds say, showing but one eye and one
ear. His attitude, also, should always be rampant or
ravaging. When passant and full-faced, they blazoned
him a leopard, vide Lion Leoparde : in England, how-
ever, the lions in the royal and other achievements
have always been blazoned as lions, however depicted
since the time of Henry III., in whose reign they were
called " Leopards:'
LION OF ENGLAND. This term is used when speaking
of a canton, or augmentation of arms. In such case,
instead of saying on a canton gules, a lion passant gar-
dant or, as an augmentation, you say, he bears on a
canton a lion of England, which hath the same significa-
LION LEOPARDE. This is a French term for what
the English call a lion passant gardant. The word
leopard is always made use of by the French heralds to
express in their language, a lion full-faced, or gardant.
Thus, when a lion is placed on an escutcheon in that
attitude which we call rampant gardant, the French
blazon it a lion leoparde ; when he is passant only, they
call him leopard Hone.
LION OF ST. MARK. A winged lion, as borne in the
arms of the republic of Venice, viz., a lion sejant gar-
dant and winged or, his legs encircled with a glory, holding
in his fore-paws an open book, wherein is written, Pax tibi
Marce, evangelista meus ; over the dexter side of the book,
a sword erect, all proper. PI. xxxn., n. 24.
LioN-PoissoN, or sea-lion, so termed as the upper
part is of a lion, and the hinder part ends in a fish's
LIO-LOZ.] of Technical Terms. 157
tail, with webbed feet; this is borne by Irihoff of
Germany. This example was copied from the family
seal. PL xxxii., n. 20.
LION-DRAGON, the upper half a lion, and the other
going off like the hinder part of a dragon. PI. xxxn.,
n. 21. Or, a lion-dragon gules, armed, langued, and
crowned of the first ; name, Bretigni. Party per chevron,
gules or, three lion-dragons ducally crowned and counter-
changed; name, Easton.
JJIONS CONJOINED, under one head ; see TRICOR-
PORATED, and PI. xxxii., n. 22.
LITVIT'S SKIN, a pure white fur.
LIZARD, a small animal of the crocodile species,
generally painted green. PL xxvin., n. 6.
LOBSTER. In blazon the term upright is given to all
shell-fish when borne as the example, because they,
wanting fins, cannot properly be termed hauriant.
PL xxxi., n. 32.
LocHABER-AxE. The ancient arms of the High-
landers: see PL xxxvi., n. 8; and two more in
PL xxix., n. 18.
LODGED, a term for the buck, hart, &c., when resting
or lying on the ground. This term is used for beasts
of chase as couchant is for those of prey. PL ix., n. 17.
PL xiv., n. 18. Argent, on a mount proper, a stag lodged,
gules; name, Sdrthill.
LONG Bow, bend in pale, gules ; name, Bowes. See
PL xxix., n. 14.
LOZENGE, a four-cornered figure, resembling a pane
of glass in old casements. PL vi., n. 17.
LOZENGES, CROSS OF. PL xxxvi., n. 17. Gules, a
cross of lozenges, flory or ; name, Fotherby. PL xxxix.
158 Dictionary [LOZ MAI.
LOZENGY is when the field or charge is covered with
lozenges. PI. v., n. 21. Lozengy, argent and gules;
LUCY, an old term for the fish called a pike.
PI. xxix., n. 7.
LUMIERES are the eyes.
LTJJSTA is the Latin for the moon : in blazoning by
the planets, it is used in heraldry instead of argent.
A LURE, two wings conjoined with their tips down-
wards, joined with a line and ring, used by falconers* to
decoy their hawks, by casting it up in the air like a
fowl. PI. xxxi., n. 34. Gules, a lure, stringed and braced
argent; name, Wavre.
LURE also signifies two wings conjoined and inverted,
which, with the tips downward, are said to be in lure.
PI. x., n. 2.
LUTRA. See OTTER.
LYMPHAD is an old-fashioned ship with one mast, and
rowed with oars. PI. xxxiv., n. 4.
LYRE, a musical instrument. See PI. xxxvi., n. 28.
MADDER BAG. See PI. xxxvm., n. 1.
MAIDEN'S HEAD, a term for the head and neck of a
woman, couped below the breast, the head wreathed
with a garland of roses, and crowned with an antique
coronet. See PI. xxvi., n. 2.
MAIL, armour for the body and arms, composed of
small close rings, termed mail, or ring armour, as if
woven in a loom. The rings composing this armour
were woven together in different ways : the ancient sort
were not very complex ; but those of later times had
the work done in so curious a manner, that ornament
was combined with strength, preventing the effects of
sword or lance. Mail, when painted or engraved, is
MAL-HAK.] of Technical Terms. 159
made like the scales of fish, which are the best resem-
blance of the mail. See PI. xxrv., n. 17.
MALLET. PI. xxx., n. 24. Gules, a chevron between
three mallets or ; name, Soame.
MALTA, CROSS OF, so called because worn by the
knights of that order. PI. xxxvi., n. 25.
MANACLES, or handcuffs. PI. xxxiv., n. 29.
MANCHE, or MAUNCH, a sleeve of the fashion of the
12th century. PI. vn., n. 13.
MANCHET, a cake of bread not unlike a muffin.
MANED, the term used in blazoning the mane or
neck-hair of horses, unicorns, tigers, or other animals,
when their manes are of a different tincture from the
MAN TIGEK, or MANTICOBA, an imaginary monster,
with body like a lion, face like a man, and horns on
the head, like those of an ox. PI. XLL, n. 9.
MANTLE. PI. xxxix., n. 24.
MANTLINGS are ornamented foliage-work for the
adorning of helmets in paintings of coats of arms.
MAKCASSIN, a young wild boar, distinguished from
the old by its tail being drawn as hanging down;
whereas the old boar's is curled, with the end only
MARINED, a term used for an animal which has the
lower part of its body like a fish. See PI. XXXIL, n. 20.
PL xxxi., n. 29.
MARINE-WOLF, or Seal. It resembles a quadruped in
some respects, and a fish in others. Seals are common
on most of the rocky shores of Great Britain ; they
feed on most sorts of fish, and are seen searching for
their prey near shore ; their head in swimming is
always above water ; they sleep on rocks surrounded
160 Dictionary [MAR-HAS.
by the sea ; they are extremely watchful, and never
sleep long without moving ; but, if disturbed by
anything, take care to tumble over the rocks into the
sea. PI. xxvi., n. 11. Argent, a chevron engrailed
gules, "between three marine wolves naiant sable, finned of
the first, langued of the second ; name, Fennor.
MARK, ST. See LION OF ST. MARK.
MARKS OF CADENCY. See DISTINCTION OF HOUSES.
MARQUIS'S CORONET. See CROWNS AND CORONETS OF
MARS, the name of one of the planets ; in heraldry
signifies the colour gules, and in engraving is repre-
sented by perpendicular lines.
MARTLET (very frequent in armories all over Europe).
This bird (known as the house-martin) is frequently
seen under the cornices of houses, with feet so short
and wings so long, that should it settle on a level
it could not easily rise; therefore, it alights on
high places, that it may drop on the wing. See
PI. vii., n. 15. This bird is represented in heraldry
without feet, and given for a difference to the fourth
son. PI. XXVIL, n. 4 ; also PI. XIIL, n. 17.
MASCALLY, argent and gules, counterly ; names, Pogeis
and Pegg. See PI. xxxix., n. 8.
MASCLE, from Macula, the mesh of a net. This
figure is of a lozenge form, and perforated, as the
example. It differs from the fusil in being shorter and
broader, and always voided. PL vi., n. 19. Argent, a
MASCLES, conjunct, argent, seven mascles conjunct, three,
three, and one, gules. PI. xxxiv., n. 32.
MASCLES, CROSS OF. PI. xxxvi., n. 12.
MASONED, a term applied to plain strokes, repre-
MAT-MID.] of Technical Terms. 161
senting the cement in stone buildings. PI. xxxvm.,
MATCH, as used by artillerymen to fire cannon, is a
kind of rope, twisted and prepared in a peculiar manner.
It is made of hempen tow, spun on the wheel, like cord,
but very slack ; and is composed of three twists, boiled
in a preparation of saltpetre, &c. PL XXVIIL, n. 4,
Argent, on a fess gules, between two matches kindled
proper, a martlet or ; name, Leet.
MATCHLOCK, a peculiar kind of gun-lock fired by a
match, formerly much used. PL xxv., n. 12. Argent, a
chevron between three matchlocks, sable ; name, Leverage.
MEMBERED, the term used in blazoning the beak
and legs of a bird, when of a different tincture from the
MERCURY, one of the planets, in heraldry signifies
the colour purple.
MERILLION, an instrument used by the hatband -
makers, and borne as part of their arms. PL xxxiv..
MERMAID, a fictitious sea animal, half a woman and
half a fish, used in armories, as represented in the
example. PL xrv., n. 4. Argent, a mermaid gules, crined
or, holding a mirror in her right hand, and a comb in her
left; name, Ellis.
MESLE, an ancient term for a field composed equally
of metal and colour, as gyronny, paly, bendy, &c.
MI-COUPY, and MIPARTEE, a French term when the
half of the shield is divided per fess and per pale.
MIDDLE-BASE is the middle part of the base, repre-
sented by the letter H, Table 1.
MIDDLE-CHIEF is the middle part of the chief, repre-
sented by the letter B, Table 1.
162 Dictionary [MIL-MOL.
MiLL-Pic, an instrument used by mill-wrights. PL
XXVIIL, n. 17. Sable, on a chevron between three mill-pics,
argent, as many mullets gules; name, Mosley. See
another shape, PI. XXXVIL, n. 5.
MILL-CLACK, represented as the example. PI. xxxvu.,
MILL-RIND, or RINE, is the iron fixed to the centre of
a mill-stone, by which the wheel turns it ; termed iri
French, fer-de-moline, or mill-iron.
MILL-STONE, charged with a mill-rine, PI. xxxin.,
n. 11. Azure, three mill-stones argent : name, Milverton.
MILL-RINE, A CEOSS ; so termed, as its form is like the
mill-rind, which carries the mill-stone, and is perforated
as that is. PI. vi., n. 14 and 15.
MINIVER, MENU-VAIK, a white fur, said to be the
belly part of the skin of the Siberian squirrel.
MITRE is a round cap, pointed and divided at the
top, from which hang two pendants, fringed at both
ends. The mitres used by all archbishops and bishops
are surrounded at bottom with a plain fillet of gold,
PL XLIII., n. 12 ; excepting that of the palatinate bishop
of Durham, which issues out of a ducal coronet.* See
PL XLIII., n. 11. These ornaments are never actually
worn in England, except by the Roman Catholic pre-
lates, but merely depicted on coats of arms. In Ger-
many several families bear the mitre for their crest, to
show that they are advocates for, or feudatories of,
ancient abbeys, or officers of bishops.
MOLE, the little animal so called, when used in
heraldry is represented as PL xxvi., n. 12. Argent,
* It has been considered that archbishops have the right of
using the ducal coronet ; but, according to the best authorities,
it belongs solely to the arms of the see of Durham.
of Technical Terms. 1 63
three moles sable, their snouts and feet gules; name,
MOLE-HILL, as the example, PI. xxiv., n. 19.
MOLINE, A CROSS, not so wide or so sharp as that
which is called ancred. T. 6, n. 2. Argent, a cross
moline gules ; name, Undal. The cross moline is used
as a distinction for the eighth brother. See DISTINCTION
MONKEY, the well-known animal so called, when
used in heraldry is represented as in nature ; but if
collared, the collar is placed round the loins, instead
of the neck, as shown in the example, PI. xxvi., n. 1 4.
MOOR-COCK, an heraldic representation of the male
of the black game, or large black grouse. Argent, a
moor-cock sable ; name, Moore. PI. xxvi., n. 19.
MORION, a steel cap or helmet for the head, anciently
worn by foot-soldiers, and variously shaped ; see PI.
xxvin., n. 24 ; and another in PI. xxix., n. 22. This is
borne by the Earl of Cardigan* Argent, a chevron
gules, between three morions azure.
MORSE. See SEA-LION.
MORTAR, PI. xxx., n. 23. Sable, a mortar and pestle
gules; name, Wakerly.
MORTCOURS are lamps used at funerals ; they are
borne as part of the Wax-Chandlers' arms. PI. xxxiv.,
MORTIER, a cap of state formerly worn in France by
some of the judicial dignitaries, as the President of
the Chamber of Deputies, the Chancellor, and the Chief
MORTNE is a term Colombiere has applied to a lion
that has neither tongue, teeth, nor claws, which, he
* And is a chapeau or Knight's cap, not a morion. ED.
164 Dictionary [MOT-MUL.
says, is borne by Leon, an ancient barony in Brittany.
PI. xxvi., n. 1. The term signifies, literally, still-born,
and is used by French, heralds to describe an animal
divested of its natural means of defence and sustenance.
MOTTO, a word or short sentence, inserted in a scroll,
under, and sometimes over, a coat of arms. Mottoes are
frequently allusive to the name of the bearer, and more
frequently to the bearings ; and in general are short
quaint sayings, of the nature of an axiom or epigraph,
expressive of the predominant passion, moral or reli-
gious sentiment, of the first adopter, or of some action
for which he was distinguished. They are not strictly
hereditary, like the arms, but may be varied or relin-
quished at pleasure. By the rules of heraldry, mottoes
are not permitted to women, unless they are sovereigns.
MOUND (from the French monde, Latin mundus, the
world) is a name given to a ball or globe, which forms
part of the regalia of an emperor or king. It is an
emblem of sovereign authority and majesty, and is
surmounted by a cross, usually the cross pattee, in all
Christian countries. PI. xxvii., n. 18.
MOUNT, a hillock, or elevation of ground, usually
arched, and blazoned vert.
MOUNTAIN CAT. See PI. xxvi., n. 16.
MOUNTED, a term applicable to a horse bearing a
rider ; also frequently used to describe a cross placed
MOURN, a term for the blunted head of a tilting-
MOUSSUE, A CROSS, for a cross rounded off at the
ends. PL XXXVIL, n. 20.
MULLET, supposed to be the rowel of a spur, and
should consist of five points only ; whereas stars con-
MUB-MUS.] of Technical Terms. 165
sist of six, or more. T. 7, n. 1. Argent, a mullet
gules ; name, Haye. Some have confounded stars and
mullets together, which mistake is easily rectified by-
allowing mullets to consist of five points only, and
stars of six, eight, or more. Bara says, mullets differ
from stars by being always pierced in the middle ;
Gibbon says, all French authors take the mullet
for the rowel of a spur, which molette signifies in
their language; and they affirm it must be always
Mr. Nisbet says, he ordinarily takes mullets for
stars in blazon, when they accompany celestial figures,
as those in the arms of Baillie ; but when they accom-
pany military instruments, and other pieces of armour,
for spur-rowels : as also when they have no such
figures with them, but are alone in the shield, consist-
ing only of five points, as in the arms of Sutherland,
MURAILLE, a term used to express any ordinary that
is walled, as PL XLL, n. 12. Azure, on a pale muraille
with three pieces on each side, or, an indorse sable ; name,
MURAL CROWN was made of gold, with battlements
on the edge of its circle, and was given by the Romans
to him who first mounted the wall of a besieged town
or city, and fixed the standard belonging to the army.
PL XLV., n. 23.
MUEREY. See SANGUINE.
MUSCHETOR signifies an ermine- spot, without those
three spots over them that are used in ermine.
MUSIMON, a beast which is said to be engendered
between a goat and a ram. PL XL., n. 20.
MUSION, an ancient term for a cat.
166 Dictionary [MUZ-OBS.
MUZZLED : the bear is generally so represented in
NAIANT, swimming, applied to fish when borne
horizontally across the field in a swimming posture.
PI. x., n. 3.
NAISSANT, coming out, applied to a lion, or other
creature, that seems to be coming out of the middle
of an ordinary or charge, as PI. xxxv., n. 26.
NAKCTSSUS, a flower consisting of six petals, each
resembling the leaf of the cinquefoil. PI. xxxiv., n. 8.
NAVAL CROWN. Claudius, after surprising the
Britons, invented this as a reward for service at sea ;
it was made of gold, and consisted of prows of galleys
and sails placed upon the rim or circle, alternately.
It is now formed of the sterns and square sails of
ships, instead of prows, placed alternately on the
circle or fillet. PI. XLV., n. 22.
NEBULE, one of the partition lines, signifies clouded,
and is used when the outlines of an ordinary or parti-
tion line run arched in and out, or waved so as to
resemble clouds, as PI. in.
NoMBRiL-PoiNT, or navel-point, is that part of the
escutcheon marked with the letter F, under the fess-
point. PI. i.
NOVA SCOTIA, badge of. See BADGE.
NOWED signifies tied or knotted, and is said of a
serpent, wyvern, or other creature, whose body or tail
is twisted like a knot. See PI. xxxv., n. 17.
OAK. This tree is variously borne, as an emblem
of strength, constancy, and long life : or, on a mount in
base, an oak acorned proper ; name, Wood. PI. xvin.,
OBSIDIONAL CROWN, or garland ; it was composed of
CGR-ORL] of Technical Terms. 167
grass, or twigs of trees, interwoven as the example ;
it was by the Eomans given as a reward to him who
held out a siege, or caused it to be raised, repulsing the
enemy, and delivering the place. PI. XLV., n. 26.
OGRESS. See PELLET.
OLIVE CROWN, or Garland. It was given by the
Greeks to those who came off victorious at the Olympic
games. PI. xxix., n. 4.
OLIVE TREE is the emblem of peace and concord ;
or, a fess gules, between three olive-branches, proper ;
OMBRE, a French term for shadowed.
ONDEE or UNDEE, the French term for wavy.
ONGLE (Lat. ungulatus), a term used by French
heralds in blazoning the talons or claws of birds or
beasts, which they describe as ongle of such a colour.
OPINICUS : a fictitious beast of heraldic invention ;
its body and fore legs like those of a lion ; the head
and neck like those of the eagle ; to the body are
affixed wings, like those of a griifin ; and it has a tail
like that of a camel. PI. xxxn., n. 6. The opinicus is
the crest to the arms of the Barber-surgeons. It is
sometimes borne without wings.
OR signifies gold, and, in engraving, is represented
by small dots all over the field or charge. PI. n.
ORB. See MOUND, and REGALIA OF ENGLAND.
ORDINARIES are any of those figures which, by their
ordinary and frequent use, are become peculiar to the
science : such as the cross, chief, pale, fess, inescutcheon,
chevron, saltire, bend, and bar. PI. iv.
ORIFLAM, or ORIFLAMME, a name given to a standard
or banner borne by the kings of France, in honour of
St. Denis. The Oriflamme borne at Agincourt was an
168 Dictionary [ORL-OST.
oblong red flag with five points or tails. The French
infantry in later times had a banner so named, which
was charged with a saltire, wavy with rays or flames
issuing from the centre crossways.
OKLE signifies a border or selvage within the shield,
at some distance from the edges. PI. v., n. 4. Azure,
an orle argent ; name, Sir John Spring. In-orle signifies
things placed regularly within the escutcheon, in the
nature of an orle, near the edges. PI. xxxv. n. 4.
Martlets, trefoils, &c., when in- orle, are always eight in
number. The phrase in-orle is also frequently used
to describe any two bearings so depicted as to meet,
or nearly meet, in the form of an arch ; as, " two
branches of laurel in in-orle"
ORLE, of three pieces, sable : this example is taken
from Upton, to show that this ordinary is borne of
many pieces. PI. xxxix., n. 17.
ORLE and BORDURE, sable, an orle within a bordure
argent. PI. xxxix., n. 18.
OSTRICH, the largest of all birds, is frequently borne
in coat armour. From the idle story of its being able
to digest iron, this bird is, in heraldry, usually painted
with a horse-shoe in its mouth. PL xxxi., n. 24.
OSTRICH FEATHERS are always drawn with their tops
turned down, as PI. xxxn., n. 8. If in coat-armoury
an ostrich-feather is white, and the quill part gold, or
any other colour different from the feather, it is
blazoned, penned, shafted, or quilled, of such a colour.
OSTRICH FEATHERS IN PLUME : if three feathers are
placed together, as in PL xxxn., n. 8, they are termed
a plume, and their number need not be mentioned in
the blazoning ; but if there are more than three, the
number should be expressed; for example, a plume of
OTT-PAL.] of Technical Terms. 169
Jive ostrich feathers. If there is more than one row of
feathers, those rows are termed in blazon heights ; for
example, a plume of ostrich feathers in two heights, by
some termed a double plume, at PL xxxn., n. 9. Where
the plume is composed of nine feathers, in two heights,
they should be placed five in the bottom row, and four
in the top row ; if there are three heights, then the
plume should consist of twelve feathers : viz., five, four,
and three. They are termed a triple plume. See Plate
xxxii., n. 10.
OTTER, the amphibious animal so called. PI. xxvi.,
n. 10. Argent, a fess between three otters sable; name,
Lutterel. Loutre, being French for otter.
OUNCE, or LYNX. See LEOPARD.
OVER- ALL is when one charge is borne over another.
See Plate xrv., n. 13. Three bars wavy azure, over-all
a lion rampant of the first ; name, Bulbeck.
OWL. This bird, in heraldry, is always represented
full-faced. PI. xxxi., n. 16.
PADLOCK : sable, three padlocks argent ; name, Lovett.
PL xxiv., n. 1.
PALE is an honourable ordinary, consisting of two
perpendicular lines drawn from the top to the base of
the escutcheon, and contains one-third of the middle
part of the field. PL iv., n. 2. The pale is like the
palisades used about fortifications, and formerly used
for the enclosing of camps ; every soldier was obliged
to carry one, and to fix it according as the lines were
drawn for the security of the camp.
IN PALE is when things are borne one above another,
perpendicularly, in the nature of a pale. See PL x., n.
PER PALE, so termed when the field or charge is
170 Dictionary [PAL-PAN.
equally divided by a perpendicular line, as PI. m.,n. 1.
Party per pale, or and sable ; name, Searle.
PALET. See PALLET.
PALL, an archiepiscopal ornament sent from Eome to
metropolitans, and appropriated to archbishops : it is
made of the wool of white lambs, and resembles the
letter Y in shape. It consists of pieces of white
woollen stuff, three fingers in breadth, and embroidered
with crosses. See PI. xxxvi., n. 10.
PALLET is a diminutive of the pale, containing one
half of the breadth of the pale. See PI. iv., n. 3.
PALLISADO. See VALLARY.
PALLISSE is like a range of palisades before a forti-
fication, and is so represented on a fess, rising up a
considerable length, and pointed at the top with the
field appearing between them. PI. xxxix., n. 16.
PALMERS' STAFF. See Plate xxxv., n. 3.
PALM-TREE. See PL xxxix., n. 2. The Egyptians
represented the year by a palm-tree, and the month
by one of its branches; because it is the nature of this
tree to produce a branch every month.
PALY is when the field is divided into four or more
even number of parts, by perpendicular lines, consisting
of two different tinctures, interchangeably disposed.
Paly of six, or and azure ; name, Gurney. PI. v., n. 17.
PALY-BENDY is by lines perpendicular, which is paly,
and by others diagonal athwart the shield, from the
dexter to the sinister, which is called bendy. PL
XXXVIIL, n. 22. Paly bendy sinister of six, or and azure,
a canton, ermine ; name, Buck, of Yorkshire. See Plate
XXXVIIL, n. 21.
PANTHER in heraldry, when depicted with fire issuing
from his mouth and ears, is termed incensed. The
PAP-PAH.] of Technical Terms. 171
panther is always represented full-faced or gardant.
PL xxxi. n. 7.
PAPAL CROWN. See POPE.
PAPILLONE is a field divided into variegated specks,
like those on a butterfly, but ranged like the scales of
a fish. PI. xxxvin., n. 25.
PARROT. PL xxvm., n. 7. Parrots are frequent
in the arms of the ancient families of Switzerland;
occasioned by two great factions in the year 1262,
which were distinguished by their ensigns ; the one
having a red standard with a white star, and the other
a white standard with a green parrot ; and the families
that were concerned in those factions bore in their
arms either stars or parrots.
PARTITION LINES are such as party-per-pale, party-
per-bend. party-per-fess, party-per-chevron, party-per-
cross, party-per-saltire ; by which is understood a
shield divided or cut through by a line or lines, either
perpendicular, diagonal transverse, &c., as in example,
PL in. Why lines are used in heraldry, is to difference
bearings which would be otherwise the same ; for an
escutcheon charged with a chief engrailed differs from
a chief wavy as much as if the one bore a cross and
the other a saltire.
PARTY signifies parted or divided, and is applied to
all divisions of the field, viz. :
PARTY-PER-PALE is the field divided by a perpendicu-
lar line. PL in, n. 1. Party-per-pale, argent and gules ;
PAHTY-PER-PALE and CHEVRON signifies the field to
be divided into four parts, by two lines ; one is a pale
line, the other a line in form of a chevron. PL
xxxvin., n. 31.
172 Dictionary [PAR-PAT.
PARTY-PER-PALE and BASE is the field divided into
three parts by the pale line, and a horizontal one in
base. PL xxxvm., n. 32.
PASCHAL LAMB. See HOLY LAMB.
PASSANT-GARDANT, for a beast walking full-faced,
looking right forward. PI. ix., n. 1. Carter says, Gules,
a lion passant-gardant, or, was the coat-armour of the
dukes of Aquitaine, and was joined with the coat of
the kings of England by the marriage of Henry II. with
Eleanor of Aquitaine, being before two lions, the pos-
ture and colours one and the same. The supposition
has probability in its favour; but it is unsupported
by any known authority.
PASSANT-KEGARDANT signifies a beast walking and
looking behind him. PL ix., n. 12.
PASSION, or CROSS of the Passion, is like that of
Calvary, but has no steps.
PASSION-NAIL. See Plate xxxvi., n. 31.
PATERNAL signifies, in heraldry, the original arms of
PATERNOSTER, A CROSS ; one which is made of beads.
PL xxxvi., n. 7.
PATONOE, A CROSS, is flory at the ends, and differs
from that which is so called, inasmuch as the cross
flory is circumflex and turns down ; whereas this ex-
tends to a pattee form. PL vi., n. 4. Vert, a cross patonce,
or ; name, Boydell.
PATRIARCHAL CROSS, so called from its being appro-
priated to patriarchs, as the triple cross is to the Pope,
PL xxxvi., n. 20. Morgan says the patriarchal cross
is crossed twice, to denote that the work of redemption
which was wrought on the cross extended to both Jews
PAT-PEL.] of Technical Terms. 173
PATTEE, A CROSS, is small in the centre, and so goes
on widening to the ends, which are very broad. PI. vi.,
PATTEE, a cross pattee throughout, i.e., extending to
the edges of the field. See Plate xxxix., n. 9. Some
authors term it cross pattee entire.
PATTES are the paws of any beast.
PAVILION. See TENT.
PAW. See GAME.
PEACOCK, when borne affronte, with its tail spread,
is termed in pride, as PL xxxv., n. 11 ; when repre-
sented with its wings close, as the example, PL xxiv.,
n. 15, it is blazoned simply a peacock, and it must be
drawn as the example.
PEA-KISE, a term for a pea-stalk, leaved and blos-
somed ; it is part of the crest of St.'Quintin.
PEAN, one of the furs, the ground black, and the
spots gold. PL XL.
PEARL, in heraldry, is used for argent, and in en-
graving is left white.
PEGASUS, among the poets, a horse imagined to have
wings, being that whereon Bellerophon was fabled to
be mounted when he engaged the Chimera ; azure, a
Pegasus, the wings expanded argent, are the arms of the
Inner Temple, London. PI. xxxiv., n. 20.
PELICAN HERALDIC. The pelican is generally re-
presented with her wings indorsed, her neck embowed,
pecking her breast ; and when in her nest feeding her
young, is termed a pelican in her piety. PL vn., n. 19.
PELICAN NATURAL. In size it exceeds the swan.
This bird has an enormous bag attached to the lower
mandible of the bill, and extending almost from the
point of the bill to the throat. See Plate xxix., n. 13.
174 Dictionary [PEL-PHE.
PELLETS are black roundles ; some term them
ogresses, and gun-stones. PL vni., n. 13.
PEN. PL xxx., n. 17. Gules, three pens argent;
PENDENT signifies hanging down.
PENNON, a small flag, ending in one sharp point, or
two, which used to be placed on the tops of spears,
with the crest, or motto, of the bearer. Pennons are
never to be charged with the arms.
PENNY-YARD-PENNY, so termed from the place where
it was first coined, which was in the castle of Penny-
yard, near the market-town of Boss, situated upon the
river Wye, in the county of Hereford. PL xxvn., n.
16. Azure, three penny-yard-pence proper ; name, Spence.
PENNONCELLE, or PENSELL, the diminutive of the
PER, a particle generally used in heraldry before
an ordinary, to denote a partition of the field, as party
per fess, pale, &c.
PERCLOSE, or demi-garter, is that part of the garter
that is buckled and no wed. See example, PL xxxix.,
n. 23. Or, the per close of three demi-garter s noived
azure, garnished of the first ; name, Narboon.
PERFLEW. See PURFLEW.
PERFORATED. See PIERCED.
PERSIA, CROWN OF. PL XLV., n. 14.
PETRONEL, an ancient name for a pistol.
PEWIT : see the example, PL xxv., n. 23.
PHEON, the iron part of a dart, with a barbed head,
frequently borne in coats ; its position is always with
the point downwards, unless otherwise blazoned. PL
vii., n. 4.
PHEON, ACROSS, composed of four Pheons. Pl.vi., n. 12.
PHCE-PIL.] of Technical Terms, 175
PHCENIX, an imaginary bird, famous among the
ancients, who describe it in form like the eagle, but
more beautiful in its plumage; and add that when
advanced in age, it makes itself a nest of spices, which
being set on fire by the sun, or some other secret
power, it burns itself, and out of its ashes rises another.
In heraldry, a phoenix in flames proper is the emblem of
Immortality. " PI. VIL, n. 20.
PIERCED, A CROSS, or any other ordinary perforated
or struck through, with a hole in it, so that the field
may be seen ; the piercing must be particularly ex-
pressed as to its shape, whether square, round, or
lozenge; viz., argent, a cross, square-pierced, azure.
PI. xxxvi., n. 1.
PIKE-STAFF. See the example, PL xxxvin., n. 3.
PILLAR. Or, a pillar sable, enwrapped with an adder
argent ; name, Myntur. PI. xxvn., n. 3.
PILE, an ordinary. PI. iv., n. 22. Edmondson is of
opinion that, when there are two. three, or more piles,
issuing from a chief, and they are not expressed in
the blazon to meet in a point, they should be drawn
perpendicular. Argent a pile gules ; borne by the cele-
brated Sir John Chandos in the time of Edward the
PILE, PARTY-PER, transposed. This kind of bearing
is rare ; for the natural bearing of piles is with the
points downward : another peculiarity is, that the field
is divided into three distinct colours. This coat is
borne by Meinstorpe of Holsatia. PI. xxxvin., n. 33.
PILE, PARTY-PER, in point, argent, and azure. PI.
PILE, PARTY-PER, in traverse, argent, and gules; so
termed, from the lines having their beginning from
176 Dictionary [PIL POI.
the exact points of the chief and base sinister, and so
extending to the extreme line in the fess point on the
dexter side : this coat is borne by Rathloive of Holsatia.
PL xxxviii., n. 35.
PILGKIMS' or PALMERS' STAFFS. See Plate xxxv.,
n. 3 and 10. Azure, three pilgrims' crook-staffs or;
PILY-BENDT : or and azure, a canton ermine. PI.
xxxv., n. 1.
PINCERS, PI. xxvm, n. 16, argent, a fess between three
pair of pincers gules ; name, Russel.
PINE-TREE. Argent, on a mount in base, a pine-tree
fructed proper ; name, Pine.
PLACCATE, a piece of armour worn over the breast-
plate, to strengthen it.
PLATE is a round flat piece of silver, without any
impression on it. T. 8, n. 10.
PLAYING-TABLE, or backgammon tables, PI. xxv.,
n. 8. Azure, three pair of backgammon tables open proper,
edged or ; name, Pegriz.
PLOUGH. Azure, a plough in fess argent; name,
Kroge. PI. xxvn., n. 12.
PLUMBY. See PURPLE.
PLUME. See OSTRICH FEATHERS.
PLUMMET, used by mariners to fathom the depth of
water. PI. xxxrv., n. 11.
POINTS OF THE ESCUTCHEON. See ESCUTCHEON.
POINTS, A CROSS, of sixteen: so termed from its
having four points at each extremity. PI. xxxvii., n. 4.
IN POINT, is when swords, piles, &c., are so borne
as to resemble the point of a pile ; that is, that the
points of such bearings almost meet in the base of the
POI-POR.] of Technical Terms. 177
POISSON. See MAEINED.
POLAND, CROWN OF. PL XLV., n. 15.
POMEGRANATE i the arms of the city of Granada in
Spain, are argent, a pomegranate in pale, slipt proper ;
allusive to the name. PI. xxvu., n. 6. It was also the
badge of Queen Katherine of Arragon, and is occa-
sionally met with in English heraldry.
POMEIS, are green Bundles, so termed from the
French word pomme, an apple. PI. viu., n. 14.
POMELLED, signifies the round ball or knob affixed to
the handle of a sword or dagger.
POMME, A CROSS, signifies a cross with a ball or knob
at each end ; from pomme, an apple. PI. vi., n. 9.
POMMETTT, A CROSS, is one the extremities of which
terminate in several, or more than one, ball or knob,
like those of a pilgrim's staff. PI. xxxvu., n. 19.
POPE'S CROWN. See TIARA.
POPINJAY, a small parrot, or paroquet, with red
beak and legs.
PORCUPINE. PI. xxvi., n. 5. Gules, a porcupine
saliant argent, quilled &nd chained or ; name, Sir Simon
Eyre, Lord Mayor of London, 1445. He built Leadenhall.
PORTATE, A CROSS, so termed because it does not
stand upright, as generally crosses do, but lies athwart
the escutcheon in bend, as if it were carried (Lat.
portatus) on a man's shoulder. PI. xxxvu., n. 16.
PORTCULLIS, a falling cross-barred door, like a harrow,
hung over the gates of fortified places, and let down to
keep an enemy out, the perpendicular bars being spiked,
both to wound the assailants and fix themselves in the
ground. The portcullis is one of the distinctions of
the royal house of Tudor, in allusion to their descent
from the Beauforts. PI. vn., n. 12.
178 Dictionary [POR-PEE.
PORTUGAL, CROWN OF, is a ducal coronet, heightened
up with eight arched diadems that support a mound,
ensigned with a plain cross. PL XLV., n. 9.
POSE. See STATANT.
POTENT, A CROSS, so termed by reason of the resem-
blance its extremities bear to the head of a crutch,
which, in Chaucer's description of old age, is called a
" So eld she was, that she ne went
A foote, but it were by potent."
PL vi., n. 5. Azure, a cross potent or ; name, Branchley.
POTENT-COUNTER-POTENT, argent and azure ; fur so
termed, because it is said to resemble the heads of
crutches : in blazon the colours being named, they
may be tinctured with any other, as argent, sable, &c.
PL ii., n. 6.
POULDRON, that part of a suit of armour which
covers the shoulder.
POWDERING signifies the strewing of a field, crest, or
supporters, irregularly with any small figures, as
escallops, martlets, fleurs-de-lis, &c. See also SEM!
PRASIN, an ancient term for green ; from the Greek,
signifying a leek.
PRECISE MIDDLE CHIEF. See MIDDLE CHIEF.
PRECISE MIDDLE BASE. See MIDDLE BASE.
PREDOMINANT signifies that the field is but of one
PREENE, an instrument used by clothiers in dressing
cloth. PL xxx., n. 5. Azure, a preene or; name,
PREMIER, from the French, signifies first ; and is
used by English heralds to signify the most ancient
peer of any degree by creation.
PEE-QUA.] of Technical Terms. 179
PRESTER JOHN, or Presbyter John, is drawn as a
bishop, sitting on a tombstone, having on his head a
mitre, his dexter hand extended, a mound in his
sinister, and in his mouth a sword fesswise ; the point
to the dexter side of the field. This is part of the arms
of the episcopal see of Chichester. PI. xxxix., n. 11.
PRETENCE. See ESCUTCHEON OF PRETENCE.
PRIDE : this term is used for turkeycocks and pea-
cocks. When they extend their tails into a circle,
and drop their wings, they are said to be in their
pride. PI. xxxv., n. 11.
PRIMROSE, an ancient term for the quatrefoil.
PRISONERS' BOLT. See SHACKBOLT.
PROBOSCIS is the trunk of an elephant. PI. xxvui.,
PROPER : this term is applied to all creatures, vege-
tables, &c., when borne in coats of arms in their
PRUSSIA, CROWN OF. PI. XLV., n. 12.
PURFLED, trimmed or garnished, a term for the studs
and rims of armour being gold : viz., an arm in armour
proper, purfled or.
PURPURE is the colour purple, and, in engraving, is
represented by diagonal lines, from the left to the
right. PI. n.
PYOT. A provincial name for a magpie.
QUADRANS, Lat. a Canton.
QUADRATE signifies square ; a cross potent quadrate
in the centre, that is, the centre of the cross is square.
See PI. xxxvi., n. 29.
QUARTER, an ordinary of a quadrangular form, con-
taining a fourth part of the field ; it is formed by two
lines, one drawn from the side of the shield horizontally
180 Dictionary [QUA-QUI.
to the centre, and the other perpendicularly from the
chief, to meet it in the same point. PL iv., n. 23.
QUARTERINGS are the partitions of a shield, containing
many coats of arms. See Plate xix., n. 19.
QUARTERLY is when a shield or charge is divided
into four parts, by a perpendicular and horizontal line,
which, crossing each other in the centre of the field,
divide it into four equal parts, called quarters. PI.
xiii., n. 6. PI. xix., n. 19.
QUARTERLY PIERCED signifies a square hole in a cross,
a millrine, &c., through which aperture the field is
seen. See examples, PI. xxxvi., n. 1.
QUARTERLY QUARTERED is a saltire quartered in the
centre, and the branches each parted by two different
tinctures alternately. See Plate xix., n. 16.
QUATREFOIL, four-leaved grass : this, as well as the
trefoil, is much used in heraldry. PI. vi., n. 22.
QUEUE, a term for the tail of an animal.
QUILL OP YARN. See the example, PI. xxv., n. 22.
QUINTAIN, QUINTAL, or QUINTIN, a kind of tilting-
post used in a gymnastic pastime of our ancestors.
There is one at Offham, in Kent ; it stands upon a
green in the midst of the village, and is about seven
feet in length ; the transverse piece is about five feet
in length, the broad part of which is marked with
many circles about the size of a half-crown ; and at
the other end is a block of wood, weighing about four
or five pounds, suspended by a chain ; the whole of
which turns round upon a pivot upon the upright
part ; and the game was played as follows : a man on
horseback being armed with a strong pole, of a certain
length, rides with full speed within a few feet of the
quintal, and making a strong thrust at that part of it
QUI-KAV.] of Technical Terms. 181
where the circles are marked, it is turned round with
such violence, that, unless he is very expert, he is sure
to receive a blow on the head from the pendulous
piece on the opposite side. PL XXXIIL, n. 6.
QUIVER OF ARROWS, a case filled with arrows.
BACK-POLE BEACON. See FIRE-BEACON.
EADIANT, or EAYONNANT, is when rays or beams are
represented about a charge ; as PI. vi., n. 16.
EAGTJLED is when the bearing is uneven or ragged,
like the trunk or limb of a tree lopt of its branches, so
that only the stumps are seen. One of the lines of
partition, from its shape, is termed raguled. PL in.,
and PL xxxvi., n. 2.
EAGULT, A CROSS, is one which seems to be made of
two trunks of trees without branches. PL xxxvi., n. 2.
Sable, a cross raguly, or ; name, Stoway.
EAINBOW is a semicircle of various colours, arising
from clouds. PL xvin., n. 6. Argent, a rainbow proper ;
EAM : the male sheep. Sable, a chevron, between three
rams' heads couped, argent ; name, Ramsey.
EAMPANT, a term applied to describe a beast standing
upright on his hinder legs. PL ix., n. 2.
EAMPANT-GARDANT, signifies a lion standing upright
on his hinder legs, full-faced, looking right forward.
PL ix., n. 2.
EAMPANT-EEGARDANT ; a term for any beast standing
upright on its hinder legs, looking behind or towards
its back. PL ix., n. 4.
EAPING, an old term for ravenous beasts when repre-
EAVEN, a bird found in almost all countries in the
world, or, a raven proper ; name, Corbet. PL xxvi., n. 18.
182 Dictionary [RAV-REB.
EAVISSANT, a French term, used to describe the
position of a wolf, or other wild beast, half raised, on
the point of springing on his prey. It is also applied
occasionally to all ravenous animals, when feeding on
or devouring their prey.
EAT, a stream of light from any luminous body, as
the sun or stars. PI. xn., n. 30. When rays are
depicted round the sun, they should be sixteen in
number ; when round an estoile, six only : in either
case, straight and waved alternately.
RAYONNANT, A CROSS, is that which has rays of glory
behind it, darting from the centre to all the quarters of
the escutcheon. PI. vi., n. 16.
REBATED is when the top or point of a weapon is
REBATEMENT. See DIFFERENCE.
REBUS, in heraldry, is generally a device, allusive to
the name of the bearer : frequently, however, the
painted representation is accompanied with words, or
an imperfect motto : the accompanying words explain-
ing the thing represented, and the representation
aiding to make sense of the imperfect motto ; as the
motto, " We must," on a sun-dial : the meaning of
which is made up by the thing itself; that is, "We
must die all" Puerilities of this kind were anciently
so much in fashion, that many instances of their use,
especially during the sixteenth century, may be found
even in churches. Examples : Islip, abbot of West-
minster, sculptured in the abbey, a representation of a
man slipping from a tree. Bolton, prior of St.
Bartholomew, Smithfield, sculptured in the church, a
bolt or arrow pierced through a tun. Hose Knotiving,
in a painting on glass in an old house, Islington, the
REC-REN.] of Technical Terms. 183
representation of a rose, a knot, or twisted cord, and
a wing. Peacham, in his " Compleat Gentleman,"
says, " Certain citizens, wanting arms, have coined
themselves devices alluding to their names, which we
call rebus : thus, Master Jugge, the printer, in many of
his books, took, to express his name, a nightingale
sitting in a bush with a scroll in her mouth, on which
was inscribed, Jugge, Jugge, Jugge."
RECLINANT, bowed or bending backward.
RECERCELEE. See CERCELEE.
RECROSSED, A CROSS, is the same as a crosslet.
EEED. See SLAT.
REFLECTED, or REFLEXED, curved or turned round,
as the chain or line from the collar of a dog, &c.,
thrown over the back.
REGALIA, the ensigns of royalty.
REGARDANT, signifies an animal looking behind,
having its face turned towards its back: as seeing,
marking, vigilant. PI. ix., n. 12.
REIN-GUARD, for that part of armour which guards
the lower part of the back.
REIN-DEER, as drawn in armoury, is a stag with
double attires ; as the example, PI. xxxii., n. 5.
REMORA. This word, in heraldry is used to denote
a serpent, in blazoning the figure of Prudence, which
is represented holding in her hand a javelin entwined
with a serpent proper ; such serpent is expressed by
the word Remora.
RENVERSE, is when anything is set with the head
downwards, or contrary to its natural way of being : as
a chevron with the point downwards, or when a beast
is laid on its back. PI. xxvi., n. 3.
184 Dictionary [RER-ROS.
HERE-MOUSE, or BAT. Argent, a rere-mouse displayed
sable ; name, Baxter. PI. xxxi., n. 18.
RESPECTING, a term for fish, or tame beasts, when
placed upright one against the other. PI. x., n. 5. For
beasts of prey the term COMBATANT is used.
REST: this figure is deemed by some a rest for a
horseman's lance ; by others, an organ-rest, and a
musical instrument, termed a clarion or claricord. It
is, in many ancient examples, drawn precisely like the
mouth-organ, or Pan's pipe. It is clear it could not
have been a lance-rest, as it appears centuries before
the introduction of that article. PI. vn., n. 11.
RESTEIALL, an ancient term for barry, paly and pily.
RHINOCEROS. PI. xxxi., n. 21.
RIBBON, or RIBAND, an ordinary containing the eighth
part of the bend, of which it is a diminutive. PI. iv., n. 9.
RISING, a term applied to birds when preparing to
fly. PI. ix., n. 20.
ROMPU, A CHEVRON, signifying a chevron, bend, or
the like, broken. PI. xxxvin., n. 18. Sable, a chevron
rompu, between three mullets or ; name, Sault. See Plate
xni., n. 27.
ROSE, in blazon, the following (according to Guillim)
should be observed, viz., argent, a rose gules, barbed and
seeded proper. The rose is blazoned gules ; the leaves
are called barbed, and are always green, as the seed in
the middle is yellow; the word proper should be
omitted in blazoning this flower ; for it could not be
understood of what colour, as there are two sorts, white
and red. PI. vi., n. 24. The rose is used as a distinc-
tion for the seventh brother. See Distinction of
Houses. PI. XLII., n. 7.
ROS-SAB.] of Technical Terms. 185
The roses of England were first publicly assumed as
devices by the sons of Edward III. John of Gaunt,
Duke of Lancaster, used the red rose for the badge of
his family ; and his brother Edward, who was created
Duke of York, anno 1385, took a white rose for his
device, which the followers of them and their heirs
afterwards bore for distinction in that bloody war
between the two houses of York and Lancaster. The
two families being happily united by Henry VII., the
male heir of the house of Lancaster, marrying Princess
Elizabeth, the eldest daughter and heiress of Edward
IV. of the house of York, anno 1486, the two roses
were united in one, and became the royal badge of
EOSELETTES, Leigh says, signify single roses, having
five leaves each.
ROSE-DOUBLE. See PI. xxxvu., n. 21.
ROUNDELS, or ROUNDLETS. See PI. vin., n. 9 to 15.
ROUSANT, a term for a bird preparing to take wing,
but whose weight of body prevents it from rising
suddenly into the air, as swans, &c. When this term
is applied to a swan, we are to understand that her
wings are indorsed ; as the example, PI. x., n. 10.
RUBY, a stone used in heraldry instead of gules,
being of a red colour.
RUSSIA, GROWN OP. PI. XLV., n. 11.
RUSTRE, is a lozenge pierced of a circular form in
the middle. See PI. xxxvu., n. 22. Boyer says,
rustre is from the German raute, which signifies the nut
of a screw.
SABLE is the colour black, and in engraving is repre-
sented by perpendicular and horizontal lines crossing
each other. PI. n.
186 Dictionary [SAC-SAL.
SACRE or SAKER, a kind of falcon; the head gray,
the feet and legs bluish, the back a dark brown.
SAGITTARIUS, an imaginary creature, half man and
half beast ; it represents one of the twelve signs of the
zodiac, and is said to have been borne by King Stephen
of England, who entered the kingdom when the sun was
in that sign, and obtained a great victory by the help
of his archers ; but we have no contemporary authority
for this statement, nor pictorial example of it. PI.
xxxi., n. 1.
SAIL, PI. xxx., n. 16. Gules, three sails argent;
name, Cavell. It is sometimes represented with a por-
tion of the mast before it.
SALAMANDER, a fictitious reptile, represented like a
small common lizard in the midst of flames. PI. xxvni.,
n. 3. Azure, a salamander or, in flames proper ; name,
SALIANT signifies leaping. PL ix., n. 6. Argent, a
lion saliant gules ; name, Petit.
COTTNTER-SALIANT is when two beasts on the same
escutcheon are saliant ; the one leaping one way, and
the other another, so that they look the direct opposite
ways ; as the example, PI. ix., n. 9, which should be
blazoned, two foxes, counter-saliant in saltier, the sinister
surmounted by the dexter.
SALLED or SALLET, from the Italian Celato, a steel
head-piece of the fifteenth century.
SALT, or SALT-CELLARS, are vessels with salt falling
from the sides, as borne in the arms of the Salters'
Company ; as PL xxxn., n. 26. Some heralds have
blazoned them sprinkling salts. They were anciently
drawn as the example. At coronation dinners, and all
great feasts given by the nobility and gentry, in
SAL-SAT.] of Technical Terms. 187
ancient times, it was usual to set one of these salts in
the centre of the dining-table ; not only for holding
salt for the use of the guests, but as a mark to separate
and distinguish the seats of the superior sort of
company from those of an inferior degree; it being
the custom of former times to set the nobility and
gentry above the salt, and the yeomanry and persons
of lower rank below the salt.
SALTIRE. This cross is an ordinary which is formed
by the bend dexter and bend sinister crossing each
other in the centre at acute angles; uncharged, it
contains the fifth, and charged, the third part of the
field. PI. iv., n. 21.
PER SALTIRE is when the field is divided into four
parts by two diagonal lines, dexter and sinister, that
cross each other in the centre of the field, dividing it
into four equal parts, in form of a saltire. PL in., n. 6.
Party per saltire ermine and gules ; name, Restwold.
SANGUINE is the murrey colour, or dark red, and is
represented in engraving by lines diagonally from the
dexter to the sinister side, and from the sinister to the
dexter. PL XLI., n. 2.
SANS-NOMBRE signifies many whole figures strewed
on the field ; but if part of them are cut off at the
extremities of the escutcheon, as the example, PI. xxxv.,
n. 31, it then is termed Seme.
SAPPHIRE, in heraldry, is used to express the colour
azure, it being a stone of a fine sky-blue colour, and
the hardest next a diamond.
SARDONYX ; this stone is used in heraldry instead of
sanguine, or dark-red colour.
SATURN, one of the planets, and is used instead of
the colour sable.
188 Dictionary [SAT-SCR.
SATTEAL, a fictitious animal, having the body of a
lion, the tail and horns of an antelope, and the face of
an old man. PI. xvui., n. 9.
SATYR. See MAN-TIGER.
SCALING-LADDER. This instrument is used to scale
the walls of besieged castles and cities. PL xin., n.
18. Argent, three scaling-ladders bendwise gules ; name,
SCARPE. A diminutive of the bend sinister. PI. rv.,
SCEPTRE, a royal staff used by kings ; azure, a sceptre
in pale or, ensigned with an eye. PI. xxvii., n. 9.
SCORPION, PI. xxviii., n. 19. Argent, a fess engrailed
between three scorpions erect sable ; name, Cole.
SCOTCH SPUR, PI. xxx., n. 19. This is the ancient
way of making spurs before rowels were invented, with
the buckles fixed to the heel-piece, as the example.
It is the Anglo-Norman pryck-spur.
SCRIP, argent, a chevron between three palmers' scrips, the
tassels and buckles or ; name, Palmer. PI. xxvii., n. 7.
In the chancel at Snodland, in Kent, where Thomas
Palmer, who married the daughter of Fitz- Simon, lies
buried, is the following epitaph :
" Palmers all our faders were,
I a Palmer lived here ;
And travell'd still, till worn wild age
I ended this world's pilgrimage.
On the blest Ascension day,
In the cheerful month of May,
A thousand with four hundred seaven,
T took my journey hence to heaven."
Palmer (so called from a staff of a palm-tree, which
they carried as they returned from the holy war), a
SOU-SEA.] of Technical Terms. 189
Pilgrim that visited holy places ; yet a Pilgrim and a
Palmer differed thus : a Pilgrim had some dwelling-
place, and a Palmer had none ; the Pilgrim travelled to
some certain place, the Palmer to all, and not to any
one in particular; the Pilgrim must go at his own
charge, the Palmer must profess wilful poverty; the
Pilgrim might give over his profession, but the Palmer
might not. Bailey. The dress of a Pilgrim was an
under vest, with an outer robe, having half-open
sleeves, showing the under-sleeves, which continued to
the wrists. On his head a broad-brimmed hat, with a
shell in front; on his feet sandals, or short laced
boots ; in his hand a staff, and by his side a scrip.
SCROGS, a term used by the Scotch heralds for a
small branch of a tree.
SCROLL, or label, wherein the motto is inserted.
SCRUTTLE. See WINNOWING-BASKET.
SCUTCHEON. See ESCUTCHEON.
SCYTHE, an instrument used in husbandry. Argent,
a scythe and in fess a fleur-de-lis sable ; name, Snyde, or
Sneyde. PI. xxxv., n. 34.
SEA-DOG is drawn in shape like the talbot, but wi^th
a tail like that of the beaver ; a scalloped fin continued
down the back from the head to the tail; the whole
body, legs, and tail scaled, and the feet webbed. PI.
xxxii., n. 7.
SEA-GULL. PI. xxxin., n. 17. Azure, a chevron or,
between three sea-gulls argent ; name, Houlditch.
SEA-HORSE; the fore part is formed like a horse,
with webbed feet, and the hinder part ends in a fish's
tail. PI. xxxi., n. 3.
SEAL. See MARINE WOLF.
SEAL'S PAW, erased, PI. xxxin., n. 9. Argent, a
190 Dictionary [SEA-SER.
chevron between three seals' paws, erased, sable. These
are the arms of Yarmouth, in Norfolk.
SEA-LION. The upper part is like a lion, and the
lower part like the tail of a fish. See PI. xxxn., n. 20.
When the sea-lion is drawn erect, as PI. xxxi., n. 29, it
is blazoned, a sea-lion, erect on his tail.
SEA-PIE, a water-fowl of a dark-brown colour, with a
red head, and the neck and wings white. PI. XXXIL,
n. 3. Gules, a chevron, between three sea-pies or ; name,
SEA.X, a scimitar, with a semicircular notch hollowed
out of the back of the blade. PI. xxxn., n. 2. It is
said, most incorrectly, to be formed exactly like the
Saxon sword. The Saxon sword was perfectly strait,
as evidenced by the numbers found in tumuli, and by
the drawings in Anglo-Saxon MSS. The heraldic
Seax is drawn in the shape of a cutlass or falchion.
SEEDED is chiefly appled to roses, to express the
colour of their seed.
SEGEEANT signifies a griffin erect on its hind-legs,
with the wings indorsed, and displayed as ready to fly.
PI. xxxv., n. 13.
SEJANT, sitting ; a term applied to all beasts when
borne in that position. PI. viu., n. 21.
SEJANT-ADDOESED is when two beasts are sitting
back to back. PL ix., n. 11. Argent, two squirrels sejant-
addorsed gules ; name, Samwell.
SEME is an irregular strewing without number, all
over the field. PI. xxxv., n. 31.
SENGEEEN, or house-leek, is part of the arms of Caius
SENTIEE, an ancient term for Piles.
SEEAPH'S HEAD is a child's head between three pair
SHA-SIN.] of Technical Terms. 191
of wings; the two uppermost and two lowermost are
counterly crossed ; the two middlemost displayed. Se'e
Plate xxxni., n. 1.
SHACKBOLT, by some called a prisoner's bolt. PI.
xxxiv., n. 24. Sable, three pair of sliack-bolts argent ;
name, Anderton. See one pair, Plate xxxn., n. 27.
SHAFTED is when a spear-head has a handle in it ;
then it is termed shafted.
SHAKE-FOKK. See HAY-FORK.
SHAMROCK, a term in Ireland for the trefoil, or
SHAVE. See CURRIERS' SHAVE.
SHIELD. See ESCUTCHEON.
SHOVELLER, a species of water-fowl, somewhat like
the duck. The ancient heralds drew this bird with a
tuft on its breast, and another on the back of its head,
as PI. xxxn., n. 1. Gules, a shoveller argent ; name,
SHRUTTLE. See WINNOWING-BASKET.
SHUTTLE ; argent, three weavers' shuttles sable, tipped,
and furnished with quills of yarn; name, Shuttleworth.
PL xxvn., n. 22.
SILK-HANKS, PL xxx., n. 14. Such are borne in the
arms of the Silk-Throwers' Company.
SINISTER signifies the left "side or part of anything,
and is the female side in an impaled coat.
SINISTER CANTON is the canton placed on the left
side of the shield in chief.
SINISTER BEND is a bend placed from the sinister
chief to the dexter base, and in size the same as the
SINISTER CHIEF is the left side of the chief, ex-
pressed by the letter C, Table I., page 10.
192 Dictionary [SIN-SPA.
SINISTER BASE, the left hand part of the base, re-
presented by the letter H, Table I., page 10.
SINISTER HAND, the left hand. PI. xxxv., n. 33.
SINOPLE signifies the colour green.
SKEIN, a Scotch term for a dagger. Gules, a chevron t
between three skeins argent, hilted and pomelled or, sur-
mounted of as many-wolves' heads, couped close; name,
SLAY, SLEA, or KEED; an instrument used by
weavers, and borne as part of the arms of the Com-
pany of Weavers of the city of Exeter. PI. xxxiv.,
SLING. See Plate xxxm., n. 19. Such a sling is
part of the arms of Cawardyn; viz., sable, a sling
bendwise between two paeons' heads.
SLIPS. See BRANCHES.
SLIPPED is a flower or branch plucked from the stock.
PI. x., n. 11.
SLUGHORN : this term is used by the Scotch heralds
for what the French call le cri de guerre, and the
English the war-cry.
SNAIL, sometimes termed a house-snail. PI. xxvu.,
n. 13. Sable, a fess between three house-snails argent ;
SOL, the sun. In heraldry sometimes used to ex-
press gold, in blazoning the arms of sovereigns.
SOLDERING-IRON, a tool used by the plumbers, and
borne in the arms of their Company. PI. xxxiv., n. 33.
SPADE-IRON, or the shoeing of a spade. PI. xxxii.,
n. 25. Azure, three spade-irons or ; name, Becton.
SPAIN, CROWN OF. See Plate XLV., n. 8.
SPANCELLED, or fettered, is when a horse has his
fore and hind legs, of the near side, fettered with
SPE-STA.] of Technical Terms. 193
fetter-locks fastened to the end of a stick. PI. xxxm.,
n. 21. This is the arms of Percivall.
SPERVERS, a term for tents, as borne by the Up-
SPHINX, a fabulous creature represented with a head,
face, and breasts like a woman ; body and legs like a
lion, and wings like a bird. A sphinx passant, wings
indorsed, argent crined or, is the crest of Asgill, bart.
PI. xxxi., n. 2.
SPIDER and WEB. A cobweb, in the centre a spider ;
name, Cobster, of Lombardy. See Plate xxxix., n. 10.
SPLENDOUR ; a term for the sun, which, when repre-
sented with a human face, and environed with rays, is
blazoned in splendour.
SPRIGS. See BRANCHES.
SPRINGING, for beasts of chase, is the same as saliant
for those of prey. PL ix., n. 15.
SPUR. Gilt spurs were the distinguishing mark of
Knighthood ; when borne on shields they are generally
represented with the rowel downwards. See SCOTCH SPUR.
SQUARE, PI. xxx., n. 7. Argent, a chevron between
three carpenters' squares, sable ; name, Attow.
SQUIRREL. PI. xxvi., n. 24. Also Plate xxxix., n. 7.
SRUTTLE. See WINNOWING-BASKET.
STAFFORD KNOT. See the example, Plate xxxn., n.
31. Or, on a chevron gules, a Stafford knot argent,
the arms of Stafford town.
STAG, borne in heraldry in various positions: as,
trippant, courant, lodged, at bay, at gaze, &c. : see those
terms. PI. ix., n. 14.
STARS. See ESTOILES.
STATANT, signifies an animal standing, with all feet
on the ground. PL vin., n. 23.
194 Dictionary [STA-SWA.
STAVES OF AN ESCARBUNCLE are the eight rays that
issue from its centre. See PL vn., n. 18.
STILTS. Seethe examples, Plate xxxv., n. 5. Argent,
two stilts in saltire sable, garnished or ; the arms of Newby,
STIRRUP. PI. XXVIIL, n. 22. Gules, three stirrups
with buckles and straps or ; name, Scudamore.
STORK. Argent, a stork sable membered gules ; name,
Starkey, of Cheshire. PL XXXL, n. 19.
STREAMING is the stream of light darting from a
comet. See Plate xvin., n. 7.
SUFFLUE, a term for a rest or clarion.
SUN, in heraldry, is represented with a human face,
environed with rays, and is termed a sun in its splendour.
PL XXVIIL, n. 5.
SUPER-CHARGE is one figure charged or borne upon
SUPER-IMBATTLED ; azure, a fess, super-imbattled,
between six estoiles or; name, Try on. See Plate XL
SUPPORTERS. See page 65.
SUPPRESSED. See DEBRUISED.
SURCOAT, a loose coat, formerly worn by military
men over their armour, and upon which their arms
were embroidered, in order that they might be distin-
guished in time of battle.
SURMOUNTED is when one charge is placed over another.
See Plate XL, n. 34, viz., sable, a pile argent, surmounted
of a chevron gules ; name, Dyxton.
SURTOUT, a term for over-all ; it signifies a small
escutcheon, containing a coat of augmentation.
SWALLOW. Or, three swallows dose, proper ; name,
Watton. See Plate xxix., n. 23.
SWA-TAU.] of Technical Terms. 195
SWAN. PI. xxxi., n. 15. Gules, a swan argent, mem-
bered or ; name, Leyham.
SWEPE ; used in ancient times to cast stones into
towns and fortified places of an enemy. PI. xxxiv.,
n. 17. Argent, a swepe azure, charged with a stone or;
name, Magnall, one of the names for a machine of this
description being Mangonel.
SWIVEL, two iron links which turn on a bolt. PI.
xxxiv., n. 29. Three such are borne on a chevron, in
the arms of the Ironmongers' Company.
SYNAMUB. See SANGUINE.
SYPHON. See FIRE-BUCKET.
SYREN, or Mermaid.
TABARD, a short loose garment for the body, with-
out sleeves, worn by knights in the 15th century over
their armour in order to distinguish them in battle ;
whereon were embroidered their arms, &c. At pre-
sent a tabard is worn only by heralds, on public occa-
TABERNACLE. See TENT.
TALBOT, a sort of hunting-dog between a hound and
a beagle, with a large snout, long, round, hanging, and
thick ears. PI. xxxi., n. 26. Argent, a talbot passant,
sable, gutte d'or ; name, Shirrington.
TAPER-CANDLESTICK. See CANDLESTICK.
TASCES, or TASSES, a part of armour to cover the
TASSEL is a bunch of silk, or gold fringe, and is an
addition to the strings of mantles and robes of state.
PL xxviii., n. 18. Gules, three tassels or ; name, Wooler.
TASSELLED ; that is, decorated with tassels.
TAU, A CROSS, or St. Anthony's cross; so called
because St. Anthony the monk is always painted with
196 Dictionary [TEA-TIE.
it upon his habit; likewise named from the Greek
letter tau. PI. xxxvi., n. 26.
TEAZEL, the head or seed-vessel of a species of
thistle ; it is used by clothiers in dressing cloth, and
borne in the arms of their Company. PI. xxxrv., n. 7.
TENNB, or TAWNY, signifies orange-colour, and in
engraving is represented by diagonal lines from the
dexter to the sinister side of the shield, traversed by
perpendicular lines. PI. XLL, n. 1.
TENT, tabernacle, or pavilion. PI. xxxix., n. 21.
Sable, a chevron between three tents, argent; name, Ten-
TETE (French), signifies the head of an animaL
THATCH-RAKE. PI. xxx., n. 4.
THUNDERBOLT, in heraldry, is a twisted bar in pale
inflamed at each end, surmounting two jagged darts,
in saltire, between two wings displayed with streams of
fire. PI. xxvii., n. 20.
TIARA, a cap of golden cloth, from which hang two
pendants, embroidered and fringed at the ends, seme of
crosses of gold. This cap is enclosed by three coronets :
on the top is a mount of gold, with a cross of the same.
When Boniface VIII. was elected into the See of
Rome, 1295, he first encompassed his cap with a
coronet : Benedict II., in 1335, added a second to it ;
and John XXII., in 1411, a third, with a view to indicate
by them that the Pope is sovereign priest, the supreme
judge, and the sole legislator amongst Christians. PL
XLV., n. 4.
TIERCE is a French term for a shield divided, or
ingrafted into three areas. PI. xxxvu., n. 26 to 33.
These partitions are not used by English heralds.
TIERCE-IN-BENB. Ibid., n. 26.
TIE-TOR.] of Technical Terms. 197
TIERCE-IN-FESS. Ibid., n. 33.
TIERCE-IN-GYRONS, bend sinisterwise. Hid., n. 29.
TlERCE-IN-GYRONS ARONDI. Ibid., n. 31.
TIERCE-IN-MANTLE. Ibid., n. 32.
TIERCE-IN-PAIRLE. Ibid., n. 27.
TIERCE-IN-PALE. Ibid., n. 28.
TIERCE-IN-PILE, from sinister to dexter. Ibid., n. 30.
TIGER HERALDIC, so termed to distinguish it from
the natural tiger. See PI. vni., n. 3.
TIGER NATURAL. See PI. xxix., n. 1.
TILLAGE, BARE-HEAD. PI. xxx., n. 3.
TiLTiNG-SpEAR, a spear used at tilts and tournaments.
PI. xxix. n. 8.
TIMBRE, signifies the helmet, when placed over the
arms in a complete achievement, but, properly, is only
the French name for crest.
TINCTURE is the colour of anything in coat-armour :
under this denomination may be included the two
metals or and argent, gold and silver, because they are
often represented by yellow and white, and are them-
selves of those colours.
TIRRET, a modern term for manacles or handcuffs,
as in the badges of the house of Percy. PI. x., n. 12.
See also another form, PI. xxix., n. 3.
TOMB-STONE. PI. xxx., n. 10. Three such are the
arms of Tomb.
TOPAZ, a stone of a gold colour, by some used instead
TORN, an ancient name in heraldry for a spinning-
TORQUED, wreathed or twisted, from the Latin
TORQUED, sometimes applied to a dolphin hauriant,
198 Dictionary [TOR-TEE.
which forms a figure similar to the letter S. See
PL xvi., n. 18.
TORSE. See WKEATH.
TORTEAUX is a roundle of a red colour. PL vm, n. 11.
TORTOISE ; vert, a tortoise passant argent ; name,
Gawdy. PL xxvi., n. 13.
TOURNE, a French term synonymous with EEGARDANT.
TOWER ; argent, a tower sable, having a scaling-ladder
raised against it in bend sinister. This is the arms of
Cardivar ap Dinwall, Lord of Aberser, in South Wales.
PL xxxix., n. 10.
TOWERED, a term applied to the towers or turrets on
walls or castles, also applied to towers when surmounted
by smaller towers or turrets ; as, azure, a tower triple-
towered or ; name, Towers.
TRANSFLUENT, a term for water running through the
arches of a bridge. See PL xxxix., n. 22.
TRANSPOSED is when bearings are placed out of their
usual situation. See PL xxxvni., n. 33.
TREFOIL, or three-leaved grass. PL vi., n. 21. Argent,
a fess nebule between three trefoils slipt gules ; name,
Thorp, of Gloucestershire.
TREILLE, or latticed; it differs from fretty, for the
pieces in the treille do not cross under and over each
other, but are carried throughout, and are always
nailed in the joints. Argent, treille gules, nailed or;
name, Bardonenche. See PL XLL, n. 5.
TRESSURE, allowed to be half the breadth of the orle,
and is borne flory and counterflory : it passes round the
field in the same shape and form as the escutcheon,
and is generally borne double, and sometimes treble.
PL v., n. 5. PL xix., n. 9. If a coat be impaled with
another, either on the dexter or sinister side, and hath
TRE-TRL] of Technical Terms. 199
a tressure, the tressure must finish at the impaled line,
and not be continued round the coat. The double
" tressure flowerie " encompasses the lion of Scotland,
and is frequently met with in the arms of the Scotch
TEESTLE, or three-legged stool. PI. xxvm., n. 14.
Gules ; a fess humette, between three trestles argent ; name,
TREVET. PI. xxvm., n. 13. Argent, a trevet sable ;
name, Trevett. The trevet is termed from its three feet,
a tripod, which in Greek signifies a stool of so many
TREVET, triangular. PI. xxxv., n. 12. Argent, a
triangular trevet sable ; name, Barkle.
TRICORPORATED is a lion with three bodies issuing
from the three corners of the escutcheon, and meeting
under one head in the fess point ; this device was borne
by Edmund Crouchback, Earl of Lancaster, brother to
King Edward I. PL xxxn., n. 16.
TRIDENT, a three-pronged barbed fork, generally
placed in the hand of Neptune.
TRIPARTED, divided into three parts.
TRIPARTED, a cross-nory. PI. xxxvu., n. 9.
TRIPPANT, or TRIPPING; this term is proper for
beasts of chase, as passant for those of prey; repre-
sented with one foot up, as it were on a trot. See
PI. ix., n. 14. Argent, a stag tripping proper, attired and
unguled or ; name, Holme.
Counter-Tripping is when two beasts are tripping,
the one passing one way, and the other another, as the
example, PL ix., n. 10 ; also, sable, two hinds counter -
tripping in fess argent; name, Cottingham. See PL
xxxi., n. 13.
200 Dictionary [TRI-TUR.
TRIPLE PLUME. See OSTKICH FEATHERS.
TRIUMPHAL CROWN was composed of laurel, and
granted to those generals who had vanquished their
enemies, and had the honour of a triumph granted to
them by the Eoman Senate. PL XLV., n. 25. In after
ages it was changed for gold, and not restricted to
those that actually triumphed, but presented on several
other accounts, as by foreign states and provinces to
their patrons and benefactors.
TRON-ONNEE, A CROSS. See DISMEMBERED.
TRUMPET. PI. xxix., n. 15. Argent, a chevron en-
grailed, between three trumpets sable ; name, Thunder.
TRUNCATED, or TRUNKED, a term applied to the main
stem of trees, &c., when couped, or cut off smooth.
See the example, PI. XVIIL, n. 14.
TRUNDLES, quills of gold thread, used by the em-
broiderers, and borne in the arms of their Company.
PI. xxxiv., n. 22.
TRUSSING; the example is a falcon, his wings ex-
panded, trussing a mallard. See PL xxxvm., n. 23.
TURKEY. PL xxix., n. 11. Argent, a chevron sable,
between three turkey-cocks in their pride proper ; name, Teo.
TURKISH CROWN. See GRAND SEIGNIOR.
TURNPIKE. See the example, PL xxiv., n. 4 : also
PL xxxiii., n. 10, three such, sable, on a field argent ;
TURNSTILE, or TURNPIKE. PL xxvin., n. 11. This
example is borne as a crest by Sir Grey Skipwith, Bart.,
but now blazoned as a " reel, proper."
TURRET, a small tower on the top of another.
TURRET. See PL xxix., n. 3. Sable, on a bend
between two turrets argent, three pheons gules, on a chief or,
a lion passant, between two lozenges azure ; name, Johnson.
TUB-VAL] of Technical Terms. 201
TURRETED, having small turrets on the top of a wall
or tower, as PI. xxxrx., n. 19.
TUSCANY, CROWN OF. PI. XLV., n. 17.
TUSK, the long tooth of an elephant, boar, &c.
TUSKED, a term used in blazonry, when the tusks of
an animal are of a different tincture from its body.
UMBRATED, signifies shadowed.
UNDE, or UNDY, the same as WAVED, or WAVY.
UNGULED, signifies hoofed.
UNICORN, a fabulous beast, well known as one of the
supporters of the royal arms. PL xxxi., n. 5. Argent,
a unicorn passant gules, armed or ; name, Stasam.
UNION, CROSS OF THE. This form was settled, A.D.
1707, as the badge of the union between England and
Scotland, and is blazoned, azure, a saltire argent sur-
mounted of a cross gules, edged of the second, as in
PI. xxxvi., n. 27. After the union with Ireland in 1801,
the cross of St. Patrick argent a saltire gules was incor-
porated with these, forming, when combined, the
national flag known as the union jack.
URCHIN. See HEDGE-HOG.
URDEE. See CLECHEE.
VAIR, a fur used for lining the mantles of ofiicials of
high rank, supposed to have been derived from sewing
together the skins of a small animal of a bluish tinge
on the back and white on the belly; therefore this
fur is always understood to be argent and azure, unless
any other metal or tincture be specified. PL n., n. 4.
Argent, a border vair. PL v., n. 16.
VAIR, ANCIENT, as appears by many good MSS., was
represented by lines nebule, separated by straight lines,
in fess. See the example, PL XL.
VAIR, A CROSS, is one composed of four pieces of
202 Dictionary [VAI-VER.
vair, their points turned to one another, in the form of
a cross. PI. xxxvi., n. 34.
VAIR-EN-POINT is a fur with the cups ranged npon a
line counterwise, argent and azure. PL XL.
VALLARY-CROWN was of gold, with palisades fixed
against the rim; it was given by the general of the
army to a captain or soldier that first entered the
enemy's camp, by forcing the palisade. PI. XLV., n. 21.
VAMBRACED, signifies an arm habited in armour. See
PL xxxiv., n. 34. Gules, three dexter arms vambraced,
in pale proper ; name, Armstrong.
VAMPLATE, a piece of steel formed like a funnel,
placed on tilting-spears just before the hand, to secure
it, and so fixed as to be taken off at pleasure.
VANNET, a term by some French authors for the
escallop or cockle-shell, when represented without ears.
See PL xxxviii., n. 11.
VARVELLED, or VEEVELLED. See VERVELS and
VENICE, CROWN OF THE DOGE OP. PL XLV., n. 20.
VENUS, one of the planets, used for the colour vert.
VERDOY signifies a bordure to be charged with any
land of vegetables. The example is, argent a ~bordure
azure, verdoy of eight trefoils, argent. PL xxxvin., n. 12.
It would be more heraldic to say, argent, a border
cJ/arged with eight trefoils, argent.
VERRY, or VAIRE, always consists of four distinct
colours, whose names must be mentioned in the blazon,
as thus ; verry, or, azure, sable, gules, &c. PL XL.
VERT signifies the colour green : it is represented in
engraving by diagonal lines from the dexter chief to
the sinister base. PL n.
VERVELS, small rings fixed to the end of the jesses,
VIB-VUL.] of Technical Terms. 203
through which, falconers put a string in order to fasten
the bells to falcons' legs.
VIROLLES, or VERULES, a term applied to the orna-
mental rings of a hunting-horn, when set round with
metal or colour different from the horn.
VOIDED is when an ordinary has nothing but an
edge to show its form : all the inward part supposed
to be cut out or evacuated, so that the field appears
through : therefore it is needless to express the colour
or metal of the voided part, because it must of course
ba that of the field. PI. xxxvii., n. 17.
VOIDERS. These figures are formed like the flanches
and flasques, yet they differ from both as being always
smaller, and not so circular. PL xxxv., n. 7.
Voider, according to Holme, is certainly a diminutive
of the flanch, and, by reason of its smallness, cannot
be charged. It is a bearing ; but being very rarely used
as such, several heraldic writers do not mention it.
VOL, among the French heralds, signifies both the
wings of a bird borne in armoury, as being the whole
that makes the flight. PI. xxxv., n. 16.
DEMI- VOL is when only a single wing is borne. PL rx.,
VOLANT : thus we term any bird that is flying. PI. rs.,
VORANT : a term for any fish, bird, beast, or reptile,
swallowing any other creature whole. PL xvi., n. 19.
VULNED signifies wounded, and the blood dropping
therefrom, as is represented on the breast of the example.
PL xvi., n. 5. Likewise a heart vulned. PL xxxv.,
EL 18. Argent, a fess gules, between three hearts vulned,
and distilling drops of Hood on the sinister side proper ;
204 Dictionary [WAK-WEL.
WAKE'S KNOT. See the example, PL xxxn., n. 34.
WALLED. See MURINILLE.
WARDON, the name of a pear, so called from having
been first cultivated at Wardon Abbey, Beds, which
bore three such pears as its arms ; the same arms were
subsequently assumed by the family of Warden, in
allusion to the name.
WASTEL-CAKE, a round cake of bread.
WATER-BAGS. PL xxx., n. 18. Argent, two water-
bags sable, hooped together or ; name, Banister. These
bags anciently were carried by the help of the hoop, put
about the neck. This is merely a variety of the next
WATER BOUGET, a vessel anciently used by soldiers
to fetch water to the camp. See PL xxix., n. 16 ; and
PL vi., n. 20.
WATTLED, a term for the gills of a cock, &c., when
of a different tincture from its body.
WAVY, formed like waves, having always three
risings, like waves rolling ; also a line of partition.
WEARE, WEIR, or dam, in fess. It is made with
stakes and osier twigs, interwoven as a fence against
water. PL xxxv., n. 25. Some authors term it a Haie.
WEEL: this instrument is used to catch fish. PL
xxxiv., n. 12. Argent, a chevron ermine, between three
weels, their hoops upwards, vert; name, Wylley. See
another, PL xxxii., n. 30. Or, a chevron between three
such weels sable ; name, Folborne.
WELL, as example, PL xxxv., n. 8. Gules, three wells
argent ; name, Hadiswell. Also PL xxxv., n. 9, sable,
three wells argent ; name, Borton.
WELL-BUCKET, argent, a well-bucket sable, handle and
WEL-WBE.] of Technical Terms. 205
hoops or; name, Pemberton. See the example, PI.
xxxvi., n. 30.
WELKE ; the name of a shell-fish. PI. vm., n. 7. Sable
a fess engrailed between three welkes ; name, Shelley, of
WERVELS. See VERVELS.
WHARROW-SPINDLE : an instrument formerly used
by women to spin as they walk, sticking the distaff in
their girdle, and whirling the spindle round, pendant
at the thread. PI. xxxiv., n. 13.
WHALE'S HEAD. See PI. xxxvm., n. 24. Argent,
three whales' heads, sable ; name, Whalley.
WHIRLPOOL. See GURGES.
WHINTAIN. See QUINTAIN.
WING OF AN IMPERIAL EAGLE. The Germans and
French always represent the wings of the eagle with a
small feather between the pinion feathers. See PI.
xxxvm., n. 29.
WINDMILL-SAIL. PI. xxxra., n, 24. Azure, a chevron
between three windmill-sails ; name, Milnes.
WINGED, the term used in blazonry when the wings
are of a different tincture from the body.
WINNOWING-BASKET, for winnowing of corn. PL
xxv., n. 17. Azure, three fans (or winnowing-baskets)
or; name, Septvans.
WOLF. PI. xxxi., n. 10. Argent, a wolf passant
sable; name, Walsalle.
WOOL-CARD, PL xxx., n. 1. Sable, three wool-cards,
or; name, Cardington.
WREATH, an attire for the head, made of linen or
silk, of two different tinctures twisted together, which
the ancient knights wore when equipped for tourna-
ments ; the colours of the silk are usually taken from
206 Dictionary of Technical Terms. [WEE-ZUL.
the principal metal and colour contained in the coat of
arms of the bearer ; unless the contrary be specially
mentioned, the crest should always be placed upon a
wreath so formed. PI. XLV., n. 28.
WREATHED, surrounded by a wreath. Savages or
wild men are always drawn wreathed around the
temples and loins, generally with oak or ivy leaves.
See PI. xviii., n. 24. Ordinaries are termed wreathed
or torqued when twisted like a wreath. Argent, a fess
wreathed azure and gules ; name, CarmicJiael.
WYVEEN. See PI. vn., n. 24. Argent, a wyvern gules ;
YATES, an ancient name in armoury for gates.
ZODIAC, in bend sinister, with three of the signs on
it, viz., Libra, Leo, and Scorpio. See PL xvni., n. 1.
This coat is said to appertain to the king of Spain,
Columbus having first discovered South America.
ZULE, a chess rook, borne in the coat of Zulenstein.
LIST OF HERALDIC TERMS,
ENGLISH, FKENCH, AND LATIN.
Annulus, vel Annel
Barbed and Crested
Barbe et Creste'
Barbula et Crista
Per Bend Sinister
Bendy of Six
Murices or Tribuli
Parti de 1'un en 1'autre Transmutatus
Utroque latere ac-
A latere disjunctum
In modumcrucis col-
Ad invicem tergum
Fer de moulin
Ad oram positus
Sur le tout
In Palum collocatus
Fer de dard
Ater, or Niger
Escartele en sautoir
Pose en sautoir
In decussim dispo-
More suo incedens
liter Aquarius mill
Two Wings expanded
Un Demi Vol
of Iftanfc anir JJoiuIitg.
HONOUR, says Cicero, is the reward of virtue, as infamy
is the recompense of vice ; so that he who aspires to
honour should arrive at it by the way of virtue ; which
the Romans expressed by so building the Temple of
Honour, that there was no possibility of entering it
without first passing through the Temple of Virtue.
The King is so called from the Saxon word honing,
or cuning, from can, intimating power, or ken, know-
ledge, wherewith every sovereign should especially be
The supreme executive power of the British dominions
is vested, by the English laws, in a single person, the
King or Queen; for it matters not to which sex the
crown descends ; the person entitled to it, whether
male or female, is immediately invested with all the
ensigns, rights and prerogatives of sovereign sway.
What follows, therefore, is applicable equally to queen-
regnant as to king. See QUEEN, p. 217.
The king is styled Father of his country; and
because the protection of his subjects belongs to his
care and office, the militia is annexed to his crown.
He is also called the fountain of honour, because in him
is vested the power of bestowing titles and dignities.
214 Degrees of Nobility.
A king is to fight the battles of his people, and to see
right and justice done to them; as also, according to
his coronation oath, to preserve the rights and privileges
of our holy church ; the royal prerogative belonging
to the crown ; the laws and customs of the realm ; to
do justice, show mercy, keep peace and unity, &c. ; and
he hath power of pardoning where the law condemns.
The king being principium, caput, et finis parliamenti,
may of his mere will and pleasure convoke, adjourn,
remove, and dissolve parliaments ; as also to any bill
that is passed by both Houses he may refuse to give
his royal assent without rendering a reason ; without
which assent it cannot pass into a law. He may also
increase the number * of the peers of the realm.
The king of England is deemed a constituent part
of the supreme legislative power, and therefore is not
himself bound by any general act of parliament, unless
especially named. He is the generalissimo of the
kingdom, with the power of raising and regulating
fleets and armies the fountain of honour, office, and
privilege head and supreme governor of the national
church, the fountain of justice and general conservator
of the peace of the kingdom his majesty being supposed,
in law, to be always present in all his courts, though
he cannot personally distribute justice. His judges
are the mirror by which the king's image is reflected, f
Besides the attribute of sovereignty, the law ascribes
to the king, in his political capacity, absolute perfection :
* Since the union of England and Scotland, the king can
neither make an English peer nor a Scotch peer ; all the peers
that the king of Great Britain now creates, are either of the
United Kingdom or of Ireland.
The King. 215
the " king can do no wrong ;" which ancient and funda-
mental maxim is not to be understood as if everything
transacted by the government was -of course just and
lawful, but means only two things : First, that what-
ever is exceptionable in the conduct of public affairs is
not to be imputed to the king ; nor is he answerable
for it personally to his people. And, 2ndly, that the
prerogative of the crown extends not to do any injury ;
it is created for the benefit of the people ; and therefore
cannot be exerted to their prejudice. Or perhaps it
means that, although the king is subject to the infirmities
and passions of other men, the constitution has pre-
scribed no mode by which he can be made personally
amenable for any wrong that he may actually do. The
law will therefore presume no wrong, where it has pro-
vided no remedy. The inviolability of the king is essen-
tially necessary to the free exercise of those high
prerogatives which are vested in him, not for his own
private splendour and gratification, but for the security
and preservation of the real happiness and liberty of
The law ascribes to the king's majesty, in his poli-
tical capacity, an absolute immortality. The king never
dies. Henry, Edward, or George, may die; but the
king survives them all. For, immediately upon the
decease of the reigning prince in his natural capacity,
his kingship, or imperial dignity, by act of law, without
any interregnum or interval, is vested at once in his
heir, who is eo instanti Icing, to all intents and purposes.
And so tender is the law of supposing even a possibility
of his death, that his natural dissolution is generally
called his demise ; demissus regis, vel coroncB : an ex-
pression signifying merely a transfer of property.
216 Degrees of Nobility.
By letters patent, his majesty may erect new coun-
ties, universities, bishoprics, cities, boroughs, colleges,
hospitals, schools, fairs, markets, courts of judicature,
forests, chases, free warrens, &c. ; and no forest or chase
is to be made, nor castle, fort, or tower to be built,
without his special licence. He has also power to
coin money, and to settle the denomination or value
for which the coin is to pass current.
The dominions of the kings of England were first
England, and all the sea round about Great Britain and
Ireland, and all the isles adjacent, even to the shores of
the neighbouring nations ; and our law saith the sea is
of the legiance of the king, as well as the land ; and as
a mark thereof, the ships of foreigners have anciently
asked leave to fish and pass in these seas, and do at
this day lower their topsails to all the king's ships of
war ; and all children borne upon these seas (as it some-
times happens) are accounted natural-born subjects to
the king of Great Britain, and need not be naturalized
as others born out of his dominions.
To England, Henry I. annexed Normandy, and
Henry II. Ireland, our kings being styled only lords of
Ireland till the 33rd of Henry VIII., although they
had all kingly jurisdiction before. Henry II. also
annexed the dukedoms of Guyenne and Anjou, the
counties of Poitou, Touraine, and Maine; Edward I.
all Wales ; and Edward III. the right, though not the
possession, of France ; but Henry Y. added both ; and
his son, Henry VI., was crowned and recognised by all
the states of the realm at Paris. King James I. added
Scotland, and since that time there have been super-
added considerable parts of America, the East Indies, as
well as that almost fifth quarter of the world, Australia.
The Queen. 217
Of the sacred person and life of the king our laws
and customs are so tender, that it is made high treason
only to imagine or intend his death : and, as he is the
father of his country, so every subject is obliged by his
allegiance to defend him, as well in his natural as
political capacity; for the law saith, the life and
member of every subject is at the service of the
The Queen is so called from the Saxon word
cuningine, as the king from honing.
The Queen of England is either queen-regnant,
queen-consort, or queen-dowager. The queen-regnant,
or sovereign, is she who holds the crown in her own
right; as the first (and perhaps the second) Queen
Mary, Queen Elizabeth, Queen Anne, and her present
Most Gracious Majesty, Queen Victoria; and such a
queen has the same powers, prerogatives, rights, digni-
ties, and duties, as if she were king.
The queen-consort is the wife of the reigning king ;
and she, by virtue of her marriage, is participant of
divers prerogatives above other women.
She is a public person, exempt and distinct from the
king ; and, not like other married women, so closely
connected as to have lost all legal or separate existence
so long as the marriage continues. For the queen-
consort is of ability to purchase lands, and to convey
them ; to make leases, to grant copyholds, and do other
acts of ownership, without the concurrence of her lord,
which no other married woman can do. She is also
capable of taking a grant from the king, which no
other wife is from her husband. The queen-consort of
England has separate courts and officers distinct from
218 Degrees of Nobility.
the king's, not only in matters of ceremony, but even of
law ; and her attorney and solicitor-general are entitled
to a place within the bar of his majesty's courts,
together with the king's counsel. She may likewise
sue and be sued alone, without joining her husband.
She may also have separate property in goods as well as
lands, and has a right to dispose of them by will. In
short, she is in all legal proceedings looked upon as a
single not as a married woman. The reason given for
which is this : the wisdom of the common law would not
have the king (whose continual care and study ought to
be for the public good) troubled and disquieted on account
of his wife's domestic affairs ; wherefore it vests in his
queen a power of transacting her own concerns without
the intervention of the king, as if she was an unmarried
The queen-consort-has also many exemptions and
minute prerogatives. For instance, she pays no toll ;
nor is she liable to any amercement in any court.
But, in general, except where the law has expressly
declared her exempted, she is upon the same footing
with other subjects ; being to all intents and purposes
the king's subject, and not his equal.
Though the queen-consort is in all respects a subject,
yet, in point of security of life and person, she is put
on the same footing as the king. It is equally treason
to compass or imagine the death of our lady the king's
companion, as of the king himself. If, however, the
queen be accused of any species of treason, she shall
(whether consort or dowager) be tried by the peers of
A queen-dowager is the widow of the king, and as
such enjoys most of the privileges belonging to her as
Eoijal Style. 219
queen-consort. But it is not high treason to conspire
her death, because the succession to the crown is not
thereby endangered. Yet still, pro dignitate regali
(for sustaining the royal dignity), no man can marry
a queen-dowager without special licence from the
reigning sovereign, on pain of forfeiting his lands and
goods. But a queen-dowager, when married again to a
subject, does not lose her regal dignity, as peeresses-
dowager do their peerage when they marry com-
THE Eoyal Style, as settled on the 5th of November,
1800, in consequence of the union with Ireland, which
was to commence from the 1st of January, 1801, runs
thus : "Victoria, by the Grace of God, of the United
Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Queen,
Defender of the Faith; and of the United Church of
England and Ireland, on earth the supreme head."
In the Latin it is differently expressed : " Victoria, Dei
Gratia Britanniarum Kegina," &c. ; the word Britan-
niarum, first introduced upon the abo.ve occasion, being
regarded as expressive, under one term, of the incorpo-
rated kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland.
James I., when he ascended the throne of England,
revived the title which had been laid aside by an
edict of Egbert; in the commencement of the ninth
century, and styled himself King of Great Britain,
comprehending under that appellation his dominion
220 Degrees of Nobility.
over England and Scotland. Before the " Union of
the Crowns," Britain alone was in general used in the
style of our sovereigns, to signify England and Wales.
Alfred, however, was called Governor of the Christians
of Britain ; Edgar, Monarch of Britain ; Henry II.,
King of Britain; and, nearly synonymous with the
latter, John was styled, Hex Britonium.
The title of King of Ireland, was first granted by
the Pope to Henry II., though it was not regu-
larly added to the royal dignities, until assumed by
Henry VIII., in 1541 ; before that time the dominion
of the English sovereigns over that island was usually
expressed by the term " Lord ;" and it is a fact,
that our monarchs publicly denominated some of the
Irish chieftains kings, while they themselves were
content with the subordinate honour of "Lord." It
should be remembered, however, that the title of
king did not invariably denote sovereignty ; and, ac-
cording to the ancient feudal system, of which those
Irish kings formed a part, many of the barons who
were dignified with that high-sounding appellation,
were in a state of vassalage. The King of Majorca
was tributary to the King of Arragon; the King of
Man to the King of Scotland ; and the Kings of Ire-
land to the King of England; to which might be
added other instances from the early history of this
country ; while even so late as the reign of Richard II.
the whole of the kings of Ireland were tributary to
Eobert de Vere, duke of that Island.
The title of Defender of the Faith, still retained in
the royal style, belonged anciently, to the kings of
England, though it had not been generally assumed
by them. "We are and will be Defenders of the
Royal Style. 221
Catholic Faith," is an expression to be found in writs
of Eichard II. Pope Leo X., in the year 1521, re-
newed that dignity, which was afterwards confirmed
by Clement VII., in consequence of Henry VIII.
having written an answer, then much esteemed, to
Luther's book on the Babylonian Captivity. Upon
the suppression of the monasteries, the Pope issued a
bull, annulling this title ; but his attempt was as futile
in that respect, as was his silly effort to depose that
sovereign; the English Parliament, in the 35th year
of Henry's reign, established it beyond the power of
change from foreign interposition, giving that monarch
not only a complete confirmation of the title, but the
power of exercising it. The Pope's supremacy in
England was totally suppressed, and the king acknow-
ledged Supreme Head of the Cliurch, as well as of the
state ; thereby laying the foundation of that reformation
which was afterwards so completely and happily ac-
complished in this kingdom.
Henry VIII. was the first King of England who
assumed the title of Majesty, which is still retained.
Before that reign the sovereigns were addressed by
the style of " My Liege" and " Your Grace ;" the
latter of which epithets was originally conferred on
Henry IV. "Excellent Grace" was given to Henry VI. ;
" Most High and Mighty Prince," to Edward IV. ;
" Highness" to Henry VII. ; which last expression
was sometimes used to Henry VIII., and sometimes
" G)-ace ;" until near the end of his reign, when, in
matters of state, they gave way to the more lofty and
appropriate appellation of "Majesty" being the ex-
pression with which Francis I. addressed him at their
interview in 1520. The Emperor Charles V. had, the
222 Degrees of Nolility.
preceding year, first assumed the novel and high-
sounding title of Majesty ; and the polished French
monarch lost not so favourable an opportunity of com-
plimenting our then youthful Henry. Elizabeth was,
however, frequently addressed as the " Queen's High-
ness," as well as the " Queen's Majesty" James I. com-
pleted the present style of "Most Excellent Majesty,'
or "Sacred Majesty" the latter being in allusion to
the inviolability or sanctity of the royal person and
The title of her present Majesty is as follows :
" Her most Excellent Majesty Victoria, of the
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Queen,
Defender of the Faith, Sovereign of the Orders of the
Garter, Thistle, Bath, St. Patrick, St. Michael, St.
George, and the Star of India."
The royal arms are as follows :
Quarterly, first and fourth gules, three lions passant-
gardant in pale, or, for England; second, or, a lion
rampant, within a double tressure, flory-counterflory,
gules, for Scotland; third, azure, a harp, or, stringed
argent, for Ireland; the whole encircled with the
garter and its motto.
Crest. Upon the royal helmet the imperial crown,
proper, thereon a lion statant-gardant, or, imperially
crowned of the first.
Supporters. Dexter, a lion rampant- gardant, or, im-
perially crowned proper; sinister, a unicorn, argent,
armed, crined and unguled or, gorged with a coronet
composed of crosses pattee and fleurs-de-lis, with a
chain affixed thereto, passing between the fore-legs and
reflexed over the back of the last.
Motto.- DIEU ET MON DROIT is in the compartment
The Prince of Wales. 223
below the shield, with the union roses, shamrock and
thistle, engrafted on one stem.
THE PRINCE OF WALES.
Since the union with Scotland, his title has been
" Prince of Great Britain, but ordinarily created Prince
of Wales ;" and as eldest son to the King or Queen-
regnant of England, he is Duke of Cornwall from his
birth, as likewise Duke of Eothsay, and Seneschal of
His mantle, which he wears at royal coronations, is
doubled below the elbow with ermine, spotted diamond-
wise; but the robe which he wears in parliament is
adorned on the shoulders with five bars or guards of
ermine, set at a distance one from the other, with gold
lace above each bar.
The younger sons of the sovereigns of England are
by courtesy styled princes by birth, as are all their
daughters princesses ; and the title of royal highness is
given to all the king's children, both sons and daughters,
and her present Majesty, by letters patent under the
Great Seal, in February 1864, was pleased to declare
her royal will and pleasure that, besides the children of
the sovereigns of these realms, the children of the sons
of any sovereign of Great Britain and Ireland shall
have and at all times hold and enjoy the same title.
The title and degree of a duke is of more ancient
standing in other countries than with us; for at the
time of the Conquest, the king himself was Duke of
Normandy, which perhaps was the reason that neither
224 Degrees of Nobility.
he nor his successors for several ages thought fit to
raise a subject to so high a dignity.
The first duke we meet with in England, properly so
called, was Edward, surnamed the Black Prince, eldest
son to King Edward III., whom his father, on the 17th
March, 1337, created in parliament Duke of Cornwall :
by which creation the first-born sons of the sovereign
of England are Dukes of Cornwall from their birth.
A duke is said to be so called from dux, a leader or
captain, because the duces of the ancient Eomans were
leaders of an army, and chosen in the field, either by
casting lots, or by the common voice ; but now the
dignity of duke is generally conferred by kings and
princes, and descends to the heir ; though in some
nations sovereigns are so called, as Duke of Savoy,
Dukes, marquesses, earls, and viscounts were for-
merly created by investiture with much ceremony.
The creation is now simply by letters patent of the
sovereign under the great seal.
A duke's mantle or robe of estate is the same as that
of the prince, with this difference, that it has only four
guards of ermine with a gold lace above each, that of
the prince having five.
The mantle which a duke wears at the coronation of
a king or queen over his surcoat, &c., is of crimson
velvet, lined with white taffeta, and is doubled with
ermine below the elbow, and spotted with four rows of
spots on each shoulder.
All dukes' eldest sons, by the courtesy of England,
are from their birth styled marquises if their fathers
enjoy that title ; if there is no marquisate in the family
they take the next highest title ; thus the eldest son of
the Duke of Northumberland has the courtesy title of
Earl Percy, there being no marquisate among the family
honours. The dukedom of Manchester has neither
marquisate nor earldom, so the eldest son is termed
Viscount Mandeville. The younger sons are all styled
lords, with the addition of their Christian name, as Lord
Thomas, Lord James, &c. ; and all dukes' daughters are
A duke has the title of grace ; and in formal super-
scriptions or addresses is styled, most high, potent, and
noble prince ; and dukes of the royal blood, most high,
most mighty, and illustrious princes.
For coronet, see PL XLIII., n. 6.
A marquis, which by the Saxons was called marJcen-
reve, and signified a governor or ruler of marches and
frontier countries, hath been a title with us but of late
years, the first being Eobert Vere, Earl of Oxford, who,
by King Eichard II., in 1387, was created Marquis of
Dublin, and from thence it became a title of honour ;
for, in former times, those that governed the inarches
were called lord marchers, and not marquises.
His robes are the same as that of a duke, except that
he has only three guards and a half instead of four on
the shoulder, and his coronation mantle has four rows
of spots on the right shoulder and but three on the
left, whereas a duke's has four rows on each.
The honour of marquis is hereditary, as is that of a
duke, earl, viscount, and baron ; and the eldest son of
a marquis, by the courtesy of England, is called earl,
or by the next highest title in the family when there is
no earldom; thus the Marquis of Salisbury's eldest
226 Degrees of Nobility.
son is by courtesy Viscount Cranbourne. The younger
sons of marquises are called lords by their Christian
names, as Lord John, &c. ; and the daughters of
marquises are born ladies ; the eldest son of a marquis
ranks next beneath an earl.
The next degree of honour is an earl, which title
came from the Saxons ; for in the ancient Anglo-Saxon
government, earldoms of counties were not only digni-
ties of honour, but offices of justice, having the charge
and custody of the county whereof they were earls, and
for assistance having their deputy, called vicecomes,
which office is now managed by sheriffs. The first earl
in Britain that was invested by girding with the sword,
was Hugh de Pusay, or Pudsey, Bishop of Durham, who,
by King Richard L, was created Earl of Northumberland.
An earl's robes nowise differ from a duke's or
marquis's, except that a duke's mantle has four guards,
a marquis's three and a half, and an earl's but three,
with a gold lace : and his coronation mantle is the
same as theirs, with only this difference a duke's has
four rows of spots on each shoulder ; a marquis's four
on the right, and but three on the left ; and an earl's
has but three on each. His cap is also the same, but
his coronet is different; for as a duke's has only
leaves, a marquis's leaves and pearls of equal height,
that of an earl has the pearls much higher than the
leaves. PI. XLIII., n. 8.
After a man is created an earl, viscount, or receives
any other title of honour, above the title he enjoyed
before, it becomes part of his name, and not an addition
only ; and in all legal proceedings he ought to be styled
by that of his dignity. An earl has the title of lord-
ship ; and, being written to, is styled right honourable.
By the courtesy of England, an earl's eldest son is
born a viscount if there is such a title attached to the
name, otherwise he is called lord only, as in the case
of the Earl of Derby, whose eldest son is Lord Stanley,
and an earl's daughters are all ladies ; but his younger
sons have no title of peerage.
The next degree of honour to an earl is that of
viscount, which was anciently an office under an earl,
who, being the king's immediate officer in his county,
and his personal attendance being often required at
court, had his deputy to look after the affairs of the
county, which officer is now called a sheriff, retaining
the name of his substitution (in Latin vicecomes) ; but
about the 18th of Henry VI., 1440, it became a degree
of honour, by his conferring this title upon John Lord
Beaumont, by letters patent, with the same ceremony
as that of an earl, marquis, and duke.
The mantle of a viscount has two guards and a half,
each having a gold lace ; his coronation mantle has three
rows of spots on the right shoulder, and two on the left.
His coronet, which is a circle of gold, is adorned
with twelve silver balls. PI. XLIII., n. 9.
The title of a viscount is, right honourable and
truly noble, or potent lord.
The eldest son of a viscount has no title of peerage,
nor are his daughters ladies ; but the eldest son and
daughter of the first viscount in Great Britain and
Ireland are said to be the first gentleman and gentle-
woman without a title in the kingdom.
228 Degrees of Nobility.
ARCHBISHOPS AND BISHOPS.
The two archbishops have superintendence over all
the churches of England, and in some respects over the
other bishops ; and the Archbishop of Canterbury has
a kind of supereminence over the Archbishop of York ;
for he has power to summon him to a national synod
or convocation, and is primate of all England, and next
in rank to the royal family ; precedes not only dukes,
but all the great officers of the crown ; nor does any,
except the lord chancellor, or lord keeper, come
between him and the Archbishop of York.
He is "primate and metropolitan of all England" and
has the title of grace given him, and most reverend
father in God.
To the Archbishop of Canterbury it properly belongs
to crown the sovereign, to consecrate a new-made bishop,
and to call provincial synods : the Bishop of London
being accounted his provincial dean, the Bishop of
Winchester his chancellor, and the Bishop of Eochester
The Archbishop of York, who is "primate of England,
and metropolitan of Ms province," has the honour to
crown the queen-consort, and to be her perpetual
chaplain : he hath also the title of grace, and most
reverend father in God.
Next to the two archbishops in the episcopal college,
the bishops of London, Durham, and Winchester have
always the precedence, by a statute made 21 Hen.
VIII. ; end all the other bishops according to the
priority of their consecrations.
The Bishop of London precedes, as being bishop of
the capital city of England, and provincial dean of
Canterbury, the Bishop of Durham, as Earl of Sedburg ;
and the Bishop of Winchester, as prelate of the order
of the Garter.
All bishops (as spiritual barons) are said to be three
ways barons of the realm, viz. by writ, patent, and
consecration; they precede all under the degree of
viscounts, having always their seat on the sovereign's
right hand in the parliament-house ; and being the
fathers and guardians of the church, they are styled
fathers in God.
As the two archbishops are called most reverend,
and have the title of grace, so the inferior bishops are
called right reverend, and have the title of lordship
A bishop's robe, in parliament, is of fine scarlet
cloth, having a long train, and is doubled on the
shoulders with miniver, edged with white ermine, as is
the bosom ; and when he goes to the House of Lords
(the sovereign being there), his train is supported by
four chaplains to the door of the house ; after which,
by a red riband fixed to the end of the train and tied in
a loop, he supports it himself, the loop being put over
his right wrist ; and in that form he takes his seat,
having a four-square cap on his head.
A temporal baron is an hereditary dignity of nobility
and honour next to a bishop ; and of this degree there
are two sorts in England, viz. a baron by writ, and a
baron by patent.
A baron by writ is he unto whom a writ of summons
in the name of the sovereign is directed, without a
patent of creation, to come to the parliament, appointed
230 Degrees of Nobility.
to be holden at a certain time and place, and there to
treat and advise with, his sovereign, the prelates, and
nobility, about the weighty affairs of the nation.
The first institutor of a baron by patent was King
Richard II., who in the year 1388, the eleventh of his
reign, created John Beauchamp, of Holt Castle, Baron
of Kidderminster, and invested him with a surcoat,
mantle, hood, cape, and verge. The newly-created
baron is now brought into the House of Lords in his
robes, between two peers of the same degree, and
introduced by Garter King-of-arms, who carries the
letters patent, the baron himself bearing the writ. A
baron has but two guards and laces on each shoulder ;
and his coronation mantle has but two rows of spots on
A baron had no coronet till the reign of King
Charles II., when he was adorned with a circle of gold,
and six silver balls set close to the rim, but without
jewels, as now borne. PI. XLIIL, n. 10.
A barony by patent goes to the heir-male, being
almost universally so limited. But a barony by writ
goes to the heirs-general ; and in case of more female
heirs than one, it becomes in abeyance, when the king
may make his option, and grant it to which of them he
PRIVILEGES OF PEERS.
The nobility of England enjoy many great privileges,
the principal of which are as follows :
They are free from all arrests for debt, as being the
king's hereditary counsellors : therefore a peer cannot
be outlawed in any civil action ; and no attachment
lies against his person ; but execution may be taken
upon his lands and goods. For the same reason they
are free from all attendance at court-leet, or sheriffs'
torns ; or, in case of a riot, from attending the posse
In criminal causes they are tried by their peers, who
give their verdict not upon oath, as other juries, but
upon their honour. A court is built on purpose, in the
middle of Westminster Hall, which is pulled down
when their trials are over.
To secure the honour of, and prevent the spreading
of any scandal upon, peers, or any great officer of the
realm, by reports, there is an express law, called scan-
dcdum magnatum, by which any man convicted of
making a scandalous report against a peer of the realm,
though true, is condemned to a fine, and to remain in
prison till the same be paid.
This title was originally instituted by King James I.,
the 22nd of May, 1611, by letters patent under the
great seal, to feed his unpardonable profusion, although
under the specious plea of assisting him in the reduction
of Ulster. The whole order was designed by the
founder not to exceed two hundred persons, of which,
if any became extinct for want of male-heirs, no new
creations should be made even to fill the vacancies.
King James indeed never exceeded the number, except
by four in the room of the same number who were
elevated to the peerage. But the great rule of the
institution was, that none should be admitted unless
upon good proof that they were men for quality, state
of living, and good reputation, worthy of it ; and, at the
least, descended of a grandfather, by the father's side,
232 Degrees of Nobility.
that bore arms, and had also a clear revenue in lands
of at least 1,OOOZ. per annum.
Those who are conversant with the personal history
of the kingdom, and will read over the first list, will
be readily convinced that it was highly respectable,
and that these requisites were complied with.
In the reign of Charles II., however, this list of
baronets was increased to 888 ; and since the reign of
George II., the number has been unlimited, and the
qualifications necessary for admission into this order
have been frequently dispensed with.
The order of baronets in Scotland was also projected
by King James, for the plantation and cultivation of
the province of Nova Scotia, in America ; and his son,
Charles I., executed his father's plan of institution,
soon after his accession to the throne, the first person
dignified with this order being Sir Robert Gordon, of
Gordonstow, whose patent bears date May 28, 1625.
THE MOST NOBLE ORDER OF THE GARTER.
ACCORDING to the most authentic accounts, this most
ancient and noble order was instituted by King Edward
III., anno 1350, the 24th year of his reign.*
* The patron, St. George, was a person of great renown and
chivalry, who, according to the learned Selden, suffered martyr-
dom at Lydia, under Diocletian. His fame was so great, that
many temples and monasteries were dedicated to him in the
Eastern countries, whence his reputation reached England, where
his memory is still annually celebrated on the 23rd day of April,
commonly called St. George's clay.
Knighthood. Order of the Garter. 233
Eespecting the pristine institution, no positive in-
formation has yet been elicited. By some writers it is
said, that the English monarch, having engaged in a
war against France, to obtain that crown, which he
claimed as descended to him in right of his mother,
thought fit to allure to his party all such brave men
as were eminent commanders and soldiers of fortune,
with the view of exciting a spirit of emulation and mili-
tary genius among his nobility. To this end he erected
a round table in the castle of Windsor, in imitation of
King Arthur's at Winchester ; and here the numerous
guests were exercised at tilts and tournaments and
royally entertained with magnificent feasts, to attach
them to the king's party. On his return from his
victorious expedition into France, he rewarded those
knights who had served him valiantly with this
distinguished badge or order; the total number so
honoured being twenty-six, of which the king himself
Other authors assert, that, the same king displaying
his garter as the signal of a battle which was crowned
with success (supposed to be Cressy), gave rise to this
A romantic story has also obtained credence, that the
fair Countess of Salisbury, in dancing with King
Edward, let fall her garter, which the king took up,
and tied round his own leg,* at which the queen being
* There may be more truth in this tradition than has been
generally supposed. The Countess of Salisbury alluded to was
probably that celebrated beauty, Joan Plantagenet, the Fair
Maid of Kent, ultimately the wife of Edward the Black Prince,
and mother of Kichard II. Ed.
234 Degrees of Nobility.
jealous, or the courtiers smiling, he restored it to its
fair owner, giving as a motto
" Honi soit qui mal y pense."
" Evil be to him (or her) who evil thinks of it."
Whatever may have been its origin, this order, which
has ever been considered as the highest in rank and
dignity in the world, and with which kings and princes
of all nations have deemed it most honourable to be
invested, consists of the sovereign and twenty-five com-
panions, called knights of the Garter. There are
besides five principal officers : the prelate, annexed to
the see of Winchester; the chancellor annexed to
the see of Oxford ; registrar, the dean of Windsor ;
Garter king of arms ; and usher, or black rod. Of
these the prelate is the principal, whose office is as
ancient as the institution. William de Edynton, then
bishop of Winchester, was the first prelate ; from which
time his successors, bishops of Winchester, have con-
tinued prelates to this day. The prelate is obliged to
wear the habit of the order yearly, on the vigil and day
of St. George, whether it be in parliament, or on any
other solemn occasion and festival.
With respect to the chancellor, at the first institution
of this order the common seal was ordained to remain
in the custody of whatsoever knight companion the king
should please. But King Edward IV. finding it neces-
sary to settle the office of chancellor of the Garter on
a person distinct from the knights companions, yet sub-
servient to them, in a chapter holden at Westminster,
the 16th of his reign, ordered that the seal should be
delivered to Eichard de Beauchamp, bishop of Salis-
bury, during pleasure ; and not long afterwards, by
Knighthood. Order of the Garter. 235
letters patent, by reason that the chapel of Windsor
was within the diocese of Salisbury, the said Richard
de Beauchamp was ordained chancellor for life ; and it
was further ordained that, after his decease, his succes-
sors, bishops of Salisbury, should always have and hold
the said office of chancellor.
King Edward VI., however, in the 7th year of his
reign, ordained that this high office should not be
executed by an ecclesiastic, but by a knight of known
extraction, sufficient abilities, and of honour untainted ;
whereupon Sir William Cecil, then principal secretary
of state, was made chancellor of the Garter; and so
this office continued, until King Charles I., by the
unanimous consent of the knights companions, declared
that the bishop of Salisbury and his successors should
for ever have and execute the office of chancellor of
the Garter, and should succeed thereto immediately
upon the first vacancy : from which period the bishops
of this see have continued to preside as chancellors, till
recently, when, by a rearrangement of the dioceses,
Windsor was transferred to the see of Oxford, and
consequently the bishop of Oxford is now chancellor
of the order of the Garter.
The office of registrar was constituted at the first
institution. What the first registrar's name was, or
who were his successors to the reign of Henry V., are not
known ; but from the reign of Henry Y. to that of
Henry VIII. they were canons of Windsor. The first
dean of Windsor constituted registrar was John Vesey,
in the 8th of Henry VIII. ; and at a chapter holden at
Whitehall, llth Charles I., that prince was pleased to
declare that the office of the dean and registrar should
be united in one and the same person. For the greater
236 Degrees of Nobility.
honour and splendour of this most noble order, King
Henry V., with the advice and consent of the knights
companions, instituted the office of Garter King-of-arms,
and was pleased to appoint him the principal officer
within the office of arms, and chief of all the servants
The services enjoined by him relating to the order
were at first performed by Windsor Herald-at-arms, an
officer created with that title by Edward III. much
about the time of the institution of this order.
The first person created Garter was Sir William
Brugges, who in the institution of his office is called
" Jartier Eoy d'Armes d'Anglois ;" but his title other-
wise runs " Dictus Gartier Eex Armorum." John
Smart was successor to Brugges, and had this office
given him by patent under the title of " Eex Armorum
de Garteria ;" and John Wry the was styled " Principalis
Heraldus et Officiarius inditi ordinis Garterii Armorum
Kex Anglicorum." But Sir Gilbert Dethic, leaving out
" Heraldus," joined " Principalis " with " Eex," and so
it has since continued "Principalis Eex Armorum"
There was assigned by Queen Elizabeth a badge of
gold, to be daily worn by the King-of-arms and his
successors on his breast, in a gold chain or riband, and
thereon enamelled the sovereign's arms with an imperial
crown, and both surrounded with a princely garter ; but
Sir Edward Walker, when Garter, obtained leave to
impale therein St. George's arms with those of the
The office of Usher of the Black Eod was likewise
instituted by the founder, and was granted by him to
William Whitehorse, Esq., for life, and was then termed
Knighthood. Order of the Garter. 237
"Officium Hostiarii Capellae Eegis infra Castrum de
Windsore." In the 3rd of Henry IV. this office is
called " Officium Virgarii comitivae de la Garter infra
Castrum Eegis de Windesore."
In the next patent to John Athelbrigg, 1st Henry V.,
it is altered to " Officium Virgarii sive Osirarii, &c.
And afterwards "Officium Virgse Bajuli coram Eege
ad Festum Sancti Georgii infra Castrum Eegis de
Windesore ;" and ever since it has passed in patent by
the name of " Virgae Bajulus Virgarius," or " Niger
Virgifer." But in the constitutions of the office he has
the title given him of Hostiarius, and is also there
required to be a gentleman of name and arms ; and if
not a knight at his entrance into office, he is to be
knighted by the sovereign.
As Garter was declared the principal officer of arms,
this officer was appointed chief usher in the kingdom,
and so called Gentleman Usher of the Black Eod.
In a chapter holden at Whitehall, 13th Charles II.,
this office was fixed to one of the gentlemen ushers
daily waiters at court, the eldest of whom is properly
called Gentleman Daily Waiter and Black Eod. His
employment in general, besides what relates to the
order of the Garter, is attendance in the House of
Lords, and also among the officers of the court. In the
8th of Elizabeth there was assigned him a gold badge,
to be openly worn in a gold chain or riband on his
breast, composed of one of the knots in the collar of the
garter which tie the roses together and encompass the
garter on both sides.
The first elected by King Edward into the most
noble order of the Garter was Edward, his eldest son,
surnamed the Black Prince ; and the rest of his accom-
238 Degrees of Nobility.
plished companions were these that follow, and who are
thus placed in their stalls :
1. The Sovereign, King Edward III.
2. Edward, Prince of Wales.
3. Henry, Duke of Lancaster.
4. Thomas Beauchamp, Earl of "Warwick.
5. Piers, Captain de Beuch.
6. Ralph Stafford, Earl of Stafford.
7. William Montacute, Earl of Salisbury.
8. Roger Mortimer, Earl of March.
9. Sir John Lisle.
10. Sir Bartholomew Burghersh.
1 1. Sir John Beauchamp.
12. Sir John Mohun.
13. Sir Hugh Courtenay.
14. Sir Thomas Holland.
15. Sir John Grey.
16. Sir Richard Fitz-Simon.
17. Sir Miles Stapleton.
18. Sir Thomas Wall.
19. Sir Hugh Wrotesley.
20. Sir Nele Lorin.
21. Sir John Chandos.
22. Sir James Audley.
23. Sir Otho Holland.
24. Sir Henry Earn.
25. Sir Sane Daubrichcourt.
26. Sir Walter Pavely.
From this account, it appears that the persons who
were distinguished by this honour were not all of the
nobility ; but at the present day this high and most
honourable badge of distinction is generally bestowed
on members of the peerage.
In their stalls they are placed according to their
seniority, and not according to their dignities and titles
of honour : hence a knight bachelor in former days has
Knighthood. Order of the Garter. 239
taken precedency of a duke, as Sir Henry Lee, knt.,
had precedency of the Duke of Lennox, in the time of
By a chapter holden 3rd of June, 1786, a new statute
was ordained, that the order should consist of the sove-
reign and twenty-five knights companions, exclusive of
the sons of his Majesty or his successors, who had been,
or might be, elected knights thereof.
Edward III. connected with the order a number of
poor or alms-knights, men of rank and merit, who had
not the means of living nobly ; an institution which is
still continued, the members of which were long known
under the title of Poor Knights of Windsor. They are
now called Military and Naval Knights of Windsor.
The habit and insignia of the order of the Garter are,
garter, surcoat, mantle, hood, George, collar, cap, and
feathers. The GARTER, of dark-blue velvet edged with
gold, bearing the motto, "HONI SOIT QUI MAL Y PENSE," in
letters of gold, with buckle and pendant of richly-chased
gold, is worn on the left leg below the knee. PI. xxi.,
n. 3. The MANTLE is of blue velvet lined with taffeta ;
on the left breast is embroidered the STAR. PI. xxi., n. 4.
The SURCOAT, or kirtle, is of crimson velvet lined with
white taffeta. The hood affixed to the mantle is also of
crimson velvet. The HAT is of black velvet lined with
white taffeta, and adorned with a large plume of white
ostrich feathers, with a tuft of black heron's feathers
in the centre, affixed to the hat by a band of diamonds.
The COLLAR is of gold, composed of twenty-six pieces
(in allusion to the number of knights), each in the form
of a garter, enamelled blue, with the rnotto. PI. xxi.,
n. 1. To which is appended the BADGE, or figure of St.
George on horseback PI. xxi., n. 2. The JEWEL (PI. xxi.,
240 Degrees of Nobility.
n. 5) is worn in common, pendent to a broad dark-blue
riband, over the left shoulder.
THE MOST HONOURABLE MILITARY ORDER OF THE BATH.
KNIGHTS OF THE BATH, so called from part of the
ceremony at their creation, were commonly made at the
coronation of a king or queen, or at the creation of a
prince or duke of the blood royal.
In the reign of Henry IV. there was a degree of
knighthood specified under the express appellation of
Knights of the Bath. That king, on the day of his
coronation, in the Tower of London, conferred the
honour on forty-six esquires, who had watched all the
night before, and had bathed themselves. Mr. Selden
thinks this order more ancient than the time of Henry
IY. ; and Mr. Ashmole is of opinion that the said king
did not constitute, but rather that he restored, the
ancient manner of making knights, for formerly knights
bachelors were created by ecclesiastics with the like
ceremonies ; which, however, were by King Henry IV.
made peculiar to the degree of knights of the Bath.
After the coronation of Charles II., who created
sixty-eight knights, the order was neglected till the year
1725, when George I. was pleased to revive and re-
organise it, to consist of the sovereign, grand-master,
and thirty-six companions. That king allowed the
chapel of King Henry VII. to be the chapel of the
order, and directed that each knight's banner, with
plates of his arms and style, should be placed over the
several stalls, in like manner as over those of the
knights of the Garter in St. George's chapel, at Wind-
sor ; and he allowed them supporters to their arms. His
Royal Highness Prince William, second son to the
Knighthood. Order of the Bath. 241
Prince of Wales, on this occasion was made the first
knight companion ; his Grace the Duke of Montague,
grand-master; and the dean of Westminster (for the
time being) dean of the order. The other officers are,
Bath King-of-arms, a registrar, who is also secretary,
a gentleman-usher of the scarlet rod, and a messenger.
The office of genealogist has been recently abolished.
Several alterations have since been made. In Janu-
ary, 1815, it was ordained that " for the purpose of
commemorating the auspicious termination of the long
and arduous contests in which this empire had been
engaged," the order should be composed of three classes.
The FIRST CLASS to consist of not exceeding seventy-
two knights grand crosses, exclusive of the sovereign
and princes of the blood. They are distinguished by
the letters G.C.B. after their names.
SECOND CLASS. KNIGHTS COMMANDERS (K.C.B.) to be en-
titled to the distinctive appellation of knighthood, and to
have the same rights and privileges as knights bachelors,
taking precedence of them ; they wear the BADGE pen-
dent by a red riband, instead of collar, round the neck
(PI. XXL, n. 2), and the star embroidered on the left side.
PL xxi., n. 4. Those persons only are eligible either to
this or the first class who are not below the rank of
major-general in the army, or rear-admiral in the navy,
excepting twelve of the number, who may be appointed
for civil or diplomatic services.
THIRD CLASS. COMPANIONS OF THE ORDER (C.B.) take
precedence of esquires, but are not entitled to the appel-
lation of knights bachelors. The BADGE (PL xxi., n. 2) is
worn pendent by a narrow red riband to the button-hole.
The BADGE is commonly pendent by a ring to a broad
red riband over the right shoulder, hanging on the left
242 Degrees of Nobility.
side ; but on particular occasions it is worn pendent to
the collar. PI. xxi., n. 1 and 2. The SURCOATS are of red
taffeta, lined with white, and girt with a white kirtle.
The MANTLE is also the same as the surcoat, with the
star (PL XXL, n. 3) on the left breast. Motto, " TRIA
JUNCTA IN UNO."
THE MOST ANCIENT ORDER OF THE THISTLE
Is fancifully stated to have been instituted by king
Achaius on the occasion of a bright cross, similar to that
on which the patron, St. Andrew, suffered martyrdom,
appearing in the heavens to him and Hurgus, king of
the Picts, on the night previous to the battle gained by
them over Athelstan, king of England. The date is
not known of its origin, but it was revived in 1540, by
James V. of Scotland ; again by James II. of England,
in 1679 ; and subsequently by Queen Anne and King
George I. ; since which it has been several times re-
organised. The order consisted of the sovereign and
twelve knights until the reign of King George IV., who,
by royal warrant at his coronation, increased the
number of knights to sixteen. The COLLAR has thistles
and sprigs of rue and gold enamelled (PI. xxn., n. 1), to
which is appended the BADGE, n. 2. The STAR is
worn on the left side (n. 3) ; and the JEWEL is pendent
to a green riband over the left shoulder, tied under
the arm, (n. 4.) Motto, " NEMO ME IMPUNE LACESSET."
The officers of this order are the dean, a secretary, an
usher of the green rod, and the Lord Lyon king-of-arms.
THE MOST ILLUSTRIOUS ORDER OF ST. PATRICK
Was instituted by King George III., Feb. 5, 1783, and
consists of the sovereign, grand-master, a prince of the
Knighthood. Hanoverian Guelpliic Order. 243
blood royal, and fifteen knights ; the lord lieutenant of
Ireland, pro tempore, being grand-master.
The officers of the order are, the Lord Primate the
Archbishop of Armagh, prelate; the Archbishop of
Dublin, chancellor ; the Dean of St. Patrick, registrar ;
a secretary ; a genealogist ; an usher of the black rod ;
and Ulster king-of-arms.
The COLLAR is of pure gold, composed of six harps
and five roses alternately joined together by twelve
knots ; in the centre is a crown, and pendent thereto
by a harp is the BADGE. PI. xxn., n. 1 and 2. The
STAR is of silver embroidery, upon a circular centre or,
a cross saltire gu., surmounted by a shamrock slipped
ppr., each leaf charged with a crown or, within a circular
fillet of gold, with the motto," QUIS SEPARABIT." PL xxn.,
n. 3. The JEWEL is likewise worn pendent from a light
blue riband scarfwise over the right shoulder, n. 4.
THE ROYAL HANOVERIAN GUELPHIC ORDER
Was founded by his majesty George IV., when Prince
Eegent, in 1815, in commemoration of the raising of
Hanover into a kingdom, and for rewarding those
persons who had performed any signal service to their
king and country. Until his royal highness the Duke
of Cumberland became King of Hanover, this decoration
was at the disposal of the sovereign of Great Britain :
it is now wholly Hanoverian, under the control of the
King of Hanover. The order is composed of three
classes, into which civil and military men are admitted,
viz., grand crosses, commanders, and knights. The
BADGES of the military grand crosses, military com-
manders, and military knights, only differ in size
according to their class. PI. xxm.,.n. 2.
244 Degrees of Nobility.
The BADGES of the civil grand crosses, commanders,
and knights are also alike, only differing in size,
having a crown upon the upper limb of the cross
(without the swords), by which it is suspended, and a
wreath of oak-leaves instead of laurels. It is worn on
grand occasions suspended from the collar (n. 1) ; but
on ordinary occasions it is worn pendent from a sky-
blue riband scarfwise. Commanders suspend it by a
sky-blue riband worn round the neck, and knights by a
riband and gold buckle from the button-hole.
The STAR worn by the military grand crosses is of
eight points, &c., with the motto, " NEC ASPERA TERRENT,"
n. 3. That worn by the civil grand crosses only differs
in the omission of the swords, and a wreath of oak-
leaves being substituted for laurel.
The star of the civil commanders differs from the
last. See PI. xxui., n. 4.
That of the military commanders is the same, with
the addition of the swords, and changing the oak into
THE MOST DISTINGUISHED ORDER OF ST. MICHAEL
AND ST. GEORGE
Was also instituted by his majesty George IV., in
1818, in commemoration of the united states of the
Ionian Islands being placed under his sovereign pro-
The order is composed of three classes, and consists
of the sovereign, a grand-master, a first and principal
knight grand cross, eight grand crosses, twelve knights
commanders, and twenty-four knights, exclusive of
British subjects holding high and confidential employ in
the service of the united states of Malta.
Knighthood. Star of India. 245
The COLLAR and BADGE (PI. xxm., n. 1 and 2) are
worn round the neck on grand occasions ; but ordinarily
the badge is worn pendent from a red riband with blue
The STAB worn by the knights grand crosses is of
exquisite taste, and can only be understood by reference
to PL xxiii., n. 3. That worn by the knights com-
manders is of a similar description, but of less beauty.
PI. XXIII., fig. 4. Motto, " AUSPICIUM MELIORIS ^}VI."
THE MOST EXALTED ORDER OF THE STAR OF INDIA (K.S.I.)
This order was instituted by her present Majesty,
23rd of February, 1861. It consists of the sovereign, a
grand-master (the governor-general of India for the
time being), and twenty-five knights, together with
such extra or honorary knights as the crown shall from
time to time appoint. The statutes provide that it
shall be competent for the sovereign to confer the
dignity of knight of the order upon such princes and
chiefs of India as shall entitle themselves to her
Majesty's favour, and on such of her Majesty's British
subjects as shall render important and loyal services to
the Indian Empire. The STAR, to be worn on the left
breast, is formed of wavy rays of gold issuing from
the centre, having thereon a star of five points in
diamonds, encircled by a light-blue enamelled riband
(on which the points rest) tied at the ends, and in-
scribed with the motto, " HEAVEN'S LIGHT OUR GUIDE,"
also in diamonds. (Vide Frontispiece.)
The COLLAR is composed of the united red and white
historic roses of England, and the lotus flower of
India, between them two palm branches tied together
in saltire, and in the centre an imperial crown all of gold,
246 Degrees of Nobility.
richly enamelled in their proper colours, and connected
by a double chain of gold.
The BADGE worn as a pendent to the collar, or to the
riband when the collar is not worn, consists of an onyx
cameo of her Majesty's head in profile, set in a perforated
and ornamented oval containing the motto of the order,
surmounted by a star of five points all in diamonds.
The riband is of pale blue, with a white stripe
towards each edge.
This degree of knighthood is of very ancient date. It
was conferred in England as early as the reign of
Edward I., and bestowed on persons distinguished for
their gallantry by the king (or his general, which was
very rare), at the head of his army, drawn up in
battalia, after a victory, under the royal standard dis-
played, attended by all the field-officers and nobility of
the court then in the army.
Knights-bannerets took place before the younger
sons of all viscounts and barons, and also preceded
baronets, and w r ere allowed to bear their arms with
supporters, which is denied to all others under the
degree of a baron, unless they be knights grand crosses
of any of the established orders.
In the year 1773, at a review of the royal navy at
Portsmouth, his majesty George III. conferred this
honourable title on several flag-onicers, viz., Admirals
Pye and Sprye, and on Captains Knight, Bickerton,
and Vernon. But this was not according to the original
institution, viz., " by the king in person, at the head of
his army, under the royal banner displayed, on occasion
of some glorious victory."
Knights Bachelors. 247
This honour was formerly in very high esteem ; but
the original institution being perverted, it is now con-
ferred indiscriminately upon gownsmen, burghers,
physicians, and others, by the sovereign's lightly
touching the person, who is then kneeling, on the right
shoulder with a drawn sword, and saying, "Eise, Sir
*," mentioning the Christian name.
Originally the qualifications for it were such, that
no trader could be created, nor any one of a servile
condition. It was then requisite that he should be
brave, expert, well-behaved, and of good morals. A
candidate for knighthood being approved of, he pre-
sented himself in the church, confessed his sins, had
absolution given him ; he heard mass, watched his
arms all night, placed his sword on the altar, which
was returned by the priest, who gave him his benedic-
tion; the sacrament was administered to him, and,
having bathed, he was dressed in rich robes, and his
spurs and sword put on. He then appeared before his
chief, who dubbed him a knight, after the same manner,
in fact, as the knights bachelors are at this time made.
The whole ceremony then concluded with feasting and
Knighthood is not hereditary, but acquired. It dees
not come into the world with a man, like nobility ; nor
can it be revoked. It was anciently the custom to
knight every man of rank and fortune, that he might
be qualified to give challenges, to fight in the lists, and
to perform feats of arms. The sons of kings, and kings
themselves, with all other sovereigns, in former days
had knighthood conferred on them as a mark of honour.
248 Degrees of Nobility.
They were usually knighted at their baptism, or mar-
riage, at their coronation, or before battle.*
A title of honour above a gentleman and below a
knight. This appellation, termed in Latin armiger, or
scutarius, served anciently to denote such as were
bearers of arms, or carried the shield ; and was accord-
ingly considered as a title of office only, until the
reign of Richard II. ; though little mention is made of
this, or the addition of gentleman, in ancient deeds, till
the time of Henry V., when, by a statute in the first
year of that monarch, it was enacted, that in all cases
where process of outlawry lay, the additions of the
estate, degree, or profession of the defendant should be
This statute having made it necessary to ascertain
who was entitled to this degree, it was laid down as a
general rule, that there were seven sorts of esquires;
1st. Esquires of the king's body, limited to the
number of four ; who kept the door of the king's bed-
chamber, when he pleased to go to bed, walked at a
coronation, and had precedence of all knights' younger
sons. They are now disused.
2dly. The eldest sons of knights, and their eldest
* No British subject is allowed to wear the insignia of any
foreign order, without first obtaining her Majesty's permis-
sion; and no licence or permission subsequent to March, 1813, to
wear the insignia of those orders in England, authorises the
assumption of any style, appellation, rank, precedence, privilege,
&c., appertaining to a knight bachelor of the United Kingdom.
3dly. The eldest sons of the youngest sons of barons,
and others of the greater nobility.
4thly. Such as the sovereign invests with collars of
SS, as the kings -at-arms, heralds, &c., or shall grant
silver or white spurs to ; the eldest sons of those last-
mentioned may also bear the title.
Sthly. Esquires to the knights of the Bath, being
their attendants on their installation ; these must bear
coat-armour, according to the law of arms, are esquires
for life, and also their eldest sons, and have the same
privileges as the esquires of the king's body.
Gthly. Sheriffs of counties and justices of peace
(with this distinction, that a sheriff, in regard to the
dignity of the office, is an esquire for life, but a justice
of the peace only so long as he continues in the com-
mission), and all those who bear special office in the
royal household, as gentlemen of the privy chamber,
carvers, sewers, cup-bearers, pensioners, serjeants-at-
arms, and all that have any near or especial depend-
ence on the royal person, and are not knighted ; also
captains in the wars, recorded in the official lists.
7thly. Counsellors at law; bachelors of divinity,
law, and physic ; mayors of towns are reputed esquires,
or equal to esquires (though not really so) ; also the
pennon-bearer to the sovereign, who carries the flag OP
banner, whereon the royal arms, either at war or at a
funeral, are painted.
Besides, this degree of esquire is a special privilege
to any of the king's ordinary and nearest attendants ;
for be his birth gentle or base, if he serve in the place
of an esquire, he is an esquire by that service ; for it
is the place that dignifies the person, and not the
person the place : so if any gentleman or esquire shall
250 Degrees of Nobility.
take upon him the place of a yeoman of the king's
guard, he immediately loses all his titles of honour,
and is no more than a yeoman.
There is a general opinion, that every gentleman of
landed property, that has 300Z. a year, is an esquire;
which is a vulgar error, for no money or landed property
will give a man properly this title, unless he come
within one of the above rules.
Gentlemen, Generosus, seems to be compounded of
two words, the one French, (Gentil), honestus vel honesta
parente natus ; the other Saxon (man), as if one said, a
man well born. Under this name are comprised all that
are above yeoman and artificers ; so that nobles may
with strict propriety be called gentlemen. But by the
custom of England, nobility is either major, or minor.
Major contains all titles and degrees from knighthood
upwards : minor, all from knights downwards.
Gentlemen have their beginning either of blood, as
being born of worshipful parents, or from having
achieved, in peace or war, some honourable action,
whereby they have acquired the right to bear arms.
But in these days whoever studies the laws of the
realm, or professes a liberal science, or who can live
without manual labour, is commonly taken for a gentle-
man : and a king-at-arms may grant him a patent for a
new coat, if there is none that of right appertains to
him from his ancestors.
If a gentleman be bound apprentice to a merchant or
other trade, he does not thereby lose his degree of gen-
tility ; but if a man be a gentleman by office only, and
loses his office, in that case he also loses his gentility.
By the statute 5 Eliz. cap. 4, entitled "An Act
touching orders for artificers, labourers, servants of
husbandry, and apprentices," amongst other things it is
declared, " that a gentleman born," &c., " shall not be
compelled to serve in husbandry." And in time still
more ancient, the gentry of England had many advan-
tages and privileges above the vulgar :
1. Pro honor e sustinendo ; if a churle or peasant
detracted from the honour of a gentleman, he had a
remedy in law, actione injuriarum ; but if one gentle-
man defamed another, the combat was anciently
2. In equal crimes a gentleman was punishable with
'more favour than the churle, provided the crime were
not heresy, treason, or excessive contumacy.
3. With many observances and ceremonial respects
a gentleman was honoured by the churle or ungentle.
4. In giving evidence, the testimony of a gentleman
was deemed more authentic than a clown's.
5. In election of magistrates and officers by vote,
the suffrage of a gentleman took place of an ignoble
6. A gentleman was excused from base services
impositions, and duties, both real and personal.
7. A gentleman condemned to death was not to be
hanged, but beheaded, and his examination taken
8. To take down the coat-armour of any gentleman,
to deface his monument, or offer violence to any ensign
of a deceased noble, was deemed an insult to the person
of the dead, and punishment was due accordingly.
9. A clown might not challenge a gentleman to
combat, quia conditiones impares.
252 Degrees of Nobility.
For the protection and defence of this civil dignity
there were three laws : the first, jus agnitionis, the right
or law of descent for the kindred of the father's side :
the second, jus stirpis, for the family in general : the
third, jus gentilitatis, a law for the descent in noble
families ; by which law a gentleman of blood and coat-
armour only was privileged.
To make perfection in blood, a lineal descent from
Atavus, Proavus, Avus, and Pater (the great-grand-
father's father, the great-grandfather, the grandfather,
and the father), on the father's side, was required ; and
as much on the mother's side ; then was a gentleman
not only of perfect blood, but of ancestry also.
Anciently, none were admitted into the inns of court
but such as were gentlemen of blood ; nor were the
church dignities and preferments bestowed indifferently
among the vulgar. The Eussians, and some other
nations, admit none to the study of the law but gentle-
men's younger sons. The decayed families in France
are supported and receive new life from the court,
camp, law, and ecclesiastical preferments, by which
means their church and state are in esteem and reve-
rence, being filled most commonly with the best blood
and noblest by birth amongst them.
The achievement of a gentleman has no difference
from that of an esquire, both their helmets being close
Yeomen are so called of the Saxon word zemen, which
signifies common, and are properly such as have some
lands of their own to live upon ; for a earn of land, or
a plough-land, was in ancient time of the yearly value
of five nobles, and this was the qualification of a soke-
man or yeoman. In our law they are called legates
homines, a word familiar in writs and inquests.
It appears from Lambarde's Perambulation of Kent,
p. 367, that the Saxon word telphioneman was given to
the theyne or gentleman, because his life was valued
at one thousand two hundred shillings (in those days the
lives of all men were rated at certain sums of money) ;
while the term twyJiind was applied to the churle or
yeoman, because the price of his head was taxed at two
hundred shillings. Which facts may be found in the
etymology of the words themselves, the one called a
telphioneman, or twelve-hundred man, and the other a
twyhind, or a man of two hundred. " And in this
estate they pleased themselves, insomuch that a man
might (as he even now may) find sundry yeomen,
though otherwise comparable for wealth with many of
the gentle sort, that will not yet for that change their
condition, nor desire to be apparelled with the title of
As in ancient times the senators of Eome were elected
a censu ; and as with us, in conferring nobility, respect
is had to revenue, by which dignity and nobility may
be supported and maintained; so the wisdom of this
realm hath of ancient time provided, that none shall
pass upon juries for the trial of any matter real or
personal, or upon any criminal cause, but such as,
besides their movables, have lands for estate of life,
at the least to a competent value : lest from need
or poverty such jurors might be corrupted or suborned.
And in all cases the law has conceived a better
opinion of those that have lands and tenements, or
otherwise are of worth in movable goods, than it has
of artificers, retailers, labourers, or the like.
254 Degrees of Nobility.
By tlie statute of 2 Hen. IV. cap. 27, amongst other
things it is enacted, " That no yeoman should take or
wear any livery of any lord upon pain of imprisonment,
and to make fine at the king's will and pleasure."
As the nobility, gentry, and clergy, have certain
privileges peculiar to themselves, so have the common-
alty of England beyond the subjects of other monarchs.
No freeman of England can be imprisoned, ousted of
his possession, or disseised of his freehold, without
order of law, and just cause shown.
To him that is imprisoned may not be denied a
lidbeas corpus, if it be desired ; and if no just cause be
alleged, and the same be not returned upon a habeas
corpus, the prisoner is to be set at liberty. By Magna
Charta, 9 Hen. III., no soldier can be quartered in any
house except inns, and other public victualling-houses,
in time of peace, without the owner's consent. By the
petition of rights, 3 Car. I., no taxes, loans, or benevo-
lences, can be imposed but by act of parliament.
The yeomanry are not to be pressed to serve as
soldiers in the wars, unless bound by tenure, which as
now abolished ; nor are the train-bands compellable to
march out of the kingdom, or be transported beyond
sea : nor is any one compelled to bear his own arms, if
he find a sufficient man as his substitute, qualified
according to the act before-mentioned ; and no freeman
is to be tried but by his equals, nor condemned but by
the laws of the laud.
The yeomen of England were famous in our fore-
fathers' days for archery and manhood : our infantry,
which so often conquered the French, and repulsed
the Scots, were composed of them, as are our militia at
PERSONS of every degree of honour or dignity take
place according to the seniority of their creation, and
not of years, unless descended of the blood royal, in
which case they have place of all of the same degree not
of the blood royal.
The younger sons of the preceding rank take place
of the eldest sons of the next degree, viz. the younger
sons of dukes of the eldest sons of earls ; the younger
sons of earls of the eldest sons of barons, &c.
There have been some alterations made as to prece-
dency, whereby all the sons of viscounts and barons are
allowed to precede baronets. And the eldest sons and
daughters of baronets have place given them before the
eldest sons and daughters of any knights, of what
degree or order soever, though superior to that of a
baronet (these being but temporary dignities, whereas
that of baronet is hereditary) ; and the younger sons of
baronets are to have place next after the eldest sons of
As, also, there are some great officers of state who
take place (although they are not noblemen) above the
nobility of higher degree ; so there are some persons
who, for their dignities in the church, degrees in the
universities and inns of court, offices in the state or
army (although they are neither knights nor gentlemen
born), yet they take place amongst them. Thus all
colonels and field- officers (who are honourable), as also
master of the artillery, and quarter-master-general;
doctors of divinity, law, physic, and music ; deans,
chancellors, prebendaries, heads of colleges in the uni-
versities, and serjeants-at-law^ are, by courtesy, allowed
place before ordinary esquires. And all bachelors of
divinity, law, physic and music ; masters of arts, barris-
ters in the inns of courts ; lieutenant-colonels, majors,
captains, and other commissioned military officers ;
and divers patent officers in the king's household may
equal, if not precede, gentlemen who have none of these
In towns corporate, the inhabitants of cities (and
herein those of the capital or metropolitan city are the
first ranked) are preferred to those of boroughs, and
those who have borne magistracy to all others. And
here a younger alderman or bailey takes not precedency
from his senior by being knighted, or as being the elder
knight, as was the case of Alderman Craven, who
(though no knight) had place, as senior alderman, before
all the rest who were knights, at the coronation of
King James. This is to be understood as to public
meetings relative to the town ; for it is doubted whether
it will hold good in any neutral place. It has also been
determined in the Heralds' Office, that all who have
been lords mayor of London shall everywhere take
place of all knights-bachelors, because they have been
the king's lieutenants.
It was likewise adjudged in the case of Sir John
Crook, serjeant-at-law, by the judges in court, that such
Serjeants as were his seniors, though not knighted, should
have preference, notwithstanding his knighthood.
All colonels, says Guillim, are honourable, and by
the law of arms ought to precede simple knights.
Women before marriage have precedency by their
father ; but there is this difference between them and
the male children, that the same precedency is due to
all the daughters that is due to the eldest, whereas it
is not so among the sons.
By marriage a woman participates in her husband's
dignities ; but none of the wife's dignities can come by
marriage to her husband, but are to descend to her next
If a woman have precedency by creation, descent, or
birth, she retains the same, though she marries an in-
ferior. But it is observable, that if a woman nobly
born marry any nobleman, as a baron, she shall take place
according to the degree of her husband, though she be
a duke's daughter.
A woman privileged by marriage with one of noble
degree, shall retain the privilege due to her by her hus-
band, though he should be degraded by forfeiture, &c. ;
for crimes are personal.
The wife of the eldest son of any degree takes place
of the daughters of the same degree (who always have
place immediately after the wives of such eldest sons) ;
and both of them take place of the younger sons of the
preceding degree. Thus the lady of the eldest son of
an earl takes place of an earl's daughter, and both of
them precede the wife of the younger son of a marquis ;
also, the wife of any degree precedes the wife of the
eldest son of the preceding degree. Thus the wife of a
marquis precedes the wife of the eldest son of a duke.
This holds not only in comparing degrees, but also
families of the same degree among themselves ; for
instance, the daughter of a senior earl yields pluce to
the wife of a junior earl's son ; though if such daughter
be an heiress, she will then be allowed place before the
wives of the eldest sons of all younger earls.
of ^recctrencg among
THE KING, or the Consort of the reigning Queen.*
The Prince of Wales.
King's or Queen-regnant's other sons.
Brothers' or sisters' sons.
Archbishop of Canterbury.
Lord High Chancellor, or Lord Keeper.
Archbishop of York.
Archbishop of Armagh, Primate of Ireland.
Archbishop of Dublin.
J Lord High Treasurer.
| Lord President of the Privy Council.
J Lord Privy Seal.
J Lord Great Chamberlain.
Lord High Constable.
Lord High Admiral.
Lord Steward of the Household.
Lord Chamberlain of the Household.
Dukes according to their patents.
Eldest sons of Dukes of the Blood Koyal.
Marquises according to their patents.
The eldest sons of Dukes.
Earls according to their patents.
The younger sons of Dukes of the Blood Royal.
The eldest sons of Marquises.
* By the official Gazette, under date 20th March, 1840, it was
ordered that H. R. H. Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha,
consort of her Majesty, should take rank next the Queen.
f Leopold, King of the Belgians, by special statute.
J Being of the degree of Barons, by stat. 31 Hen. VIII.
Above all of their degree, viz., Dukes to precede Dukes,
Earls above Earls, &c. Stat. 31 Hen. VIII.
Table of Precedency. 259
The younger sons of Dukes.
Viscounts according to their patents.
The eldest sons of Earls.
The younger sons of Marquises.
Bishop of London.
Bishop of Durham.
Bishop of Winchester.
An other Bishops according to seniority of consecration.
* Barons according to their patents.
Speaker of the House of Commons.
Commissioners of the Great Seal.
The Treasurer of the Household.
The Comptroller of the Household.
Master of the Horse.
The Vice Chamberlain.
Secretary of State, being under the degree of Baron.
The eldest sons of Viscounts.
The younger sons of Earls.
The eldest sons of Barons.
Knights of the Garter (if not nobles^
Privy Councillors (ditto}.
* Any peer, being principal secretary of state, shall take prece-
dence of all other peers of his degree. But the priority of signing
treaties, or instruments, by public ministers, is always enjoyed
by rank of place, and not by title.
It was confirmed by stat. 5 Anne, chap. 8, That all peers of
Scotland shall be peers of Great Britain, and have rank next after
the peers of the same degree in England, at the date of the
union, May 1, 1707. By Act 39 & 40 Geo. III. cap. 67, it is
enacted, That the lords of Parliament on the part of Ireland shall
have the same privileges as the lords of Great Britain ; and all the
lords spiritual of Ireland shall rank next after the lords spiritual
of Great Britain, and shall enjoy the same privileges, except that
of sitting in the House of Lords. The temporal peers of Ireland
have rank next after the peers of the same rank in Great Britain
created before the union. All peerages of Ireland and Great
Britain created since the union have rank according to creation,
and are considered in all respects as peerages of the United King-
dom, and enjoy the same privileges, excepting those peers of
Ireland who have not sittings in the House of Lords.
f Knights of the Thistle and of St. Patrick have no precedence,
under the statutes of their orders, and would be placed according
to their rank irrespective of their knighthood.
260 Table of Precedency.
Chancellor of the Exchequer.
Chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster.
Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench.
Master of the Bolls.
Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas.
Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer.
Judges and Barons of the degree of the Coif of the said Courts
according to seniority, and
Judges of the Court of Keview.
Commissioners of the Court of Bankruptcy.
Bannerets made under the Royal banner, in open war, and the
King or Prince of Wales personally present.
The younger sons of Viscounts.
The youngers sons of Barons.
Baronets according to their patents.
Bannerets not made by the King himself in person.
Knights Grand Crosses of the Bath.
Knights Grand Crosses of St. Michael and St. George.
Knights Commanders of the Bath.
Knights Commanders of St. Michael and St. George.
Companions of the Bath.
Companions of St. Michael and St. George.
Eldest sons of the younger sons of Peers.
The eldest sons of Baronets.
The eldest sons of Bannerets.
The eldest sons of Knights of the Garter.
The eldest sons of Knights Bachelors.
The younger sons of Baronets.
Esquires by creation.
Esquires by office.
Gentlemen entitled to bear arms.
Clergymen, Barristers at Law, Officers in the Navy and Army,
who are Gentlemen by profession.
of ^rmittncg among JKKomen.
THE QUEEN (Regnant or Consort, as the case may be).
The Queen Dowager.
Princess of Wales.
Princesses, daughters of the Bang or Queen Regnant.
Princesses and Duchesses, wives of the King's or Queen
Regnant's younger sons.
King's or Queen Regnant's granddaughters.
Wives of the King's or Queen Regnant's grandsons.
Wives of the King's or Queen Regnant's brothers.
The King's aunts
Wives of the King's uncles.
Daughters of the King's or Queen Regnant's brothers' or
Wives of the King's nephews.
Wives of the eldest sons of Dukes.
Daughters of Dukes.
Wives of the eldest sons of Marquises.
Daughters of Marquises.
Wives of the younger sons of Dukes.
Wives of the younger sons of Marquises.
, Wives of the eldest sons of Viscounts.
Daughters of Viscounts.
Wives of the younger sons of Earls.
Wives of the eldest sons of Barons.
Daughters of Barons.
Wives of Knights of the Garter.
Wives of Bannerets made ty the King in person.
Wives of the younger sons of Viscounts.
Wives of the younger sons of Barons.
Table of Precedency.
Wives of Baronets.
Wives of Bannerets not made by the King in person.
Wives of Knights Grand Crosses of the Bath.
Wives of Knights Grand Crosses of St. Michael and St. George.
Wives of Knights Commanders of the Bath.
Wives of Knights Commanders of St. Michael and St. George.
Wives of Knights Bachelors.
Wives of Companions of the Bath.
Wives of Companions of St. Michael and St. George.
Wives of the eldest sons of the younger sons of Peers.
Daughters of the younger sons of Peers.
Wives of the eldest sons of Baronets.
Daughters of Baronets.
Wives of the eldest sons of Knights of the Garter.
Wives of the eldest sons of Bannerets.
Wives of the eldest sons of Knights Bachelors.
Daughters of Knights Bachelors.
Wives of the younger sons of Baronets.
Wives of Esquires.
Wives of Gentlemen.
Wives of Clergymen, Barristers at Law, and Officers in the
Navy and Army.
CStoat <2Mcers of State, anfc of
THE LOED HIGH STEWAED.
THE power and influence of the lord high steward,
anciently the first great officer of state, were in former
times so exorbitant, that after the elevation of Henry
of Bolingbroke, Duke of Lancaster, to the throne, when
the office came into the hands of the crown, it was not
thought prudent to intrust it again in the person of a
subject. Since that time, therefore, there has not been
any lord high steward in England, except to officiate pro
tempore at a coronation, or for the arraignment of a peer
or peeress for a capital crime.
THE LOED HIGH CHANCELLOE.
Formerly the second, now the first, great officer of the
crown, is the lord high chancellor, or keeper of the
great seal, which are the same in authority, power, and
precedence. They are appointed by the sovereign's
delivery of the great seal to them, and by taking the
oath of office. They differ only in this point that the
lord chancellor has also letters patent, whereas the
lord keeper has none. He is an officer of very great
power, no patents, writs, or grants being valid, until he
affixes the great seal thereto.
Among the many great prerogatives of his office, he
has a power to judge according to equity, conscience,
Great Officers of State,
and reason, where lie finds the law of the land defec-
tive : to collate to all ecclesiastical benefices rated
under 20/. a year : and to perform all matters which
appertain to the speaker of the House of Lords.
In ancient times this great office was most usually
filled by an ecclesiastic. The first upon record after
the Conquest is Maurice, in 1067, who was afterwards
bishop of London.
There is no instance of the elevation of any chan-
cellor to the peerage until the year 1603, when King
James I. delivered a new great seal to Sir Thomas
Egerton, and soon after created him baron of Elles-
mere, and constituted him lord high chancellor of
England. But until of late years the custom never
prevailed, that the lord high chancellor of England
should be made an hereditary peer of the realm.
THE LORD HIGH TREASURER.
This was anciently the third great office of the crown,
It was then conferred by the delivery of the golden
keys of the treasury : but it is now executed by five
persons, who are called lords commissioners for exe-
cuting the office of lord high treasurer, viz., one who
is called the first lord of the treasury, and four others,
who are styled lords of the treasury only, of whom
one is also denominated chancellor and under-trea-
surer of the exchequer, although not unfrequently
the offices of first lord of the treasury, and of chan-
cellor of the exchequer have been united in the same
and Royal Household. 265
THE LORD PRESIDENT OF THE COUNCIL.
Formerly the fourth now the third great officer of
state is appointed by the crown by letters patent under
the great seal, durante bene platito (during pleasure).
His duty is to attend the royal person, and to manage
the debates in council ; to propose matters from the
sovereign at the council-table, and to report the resolu-
tions taken thereon.
THE LORD PRIVY-SEAL.
The lord privy-seal is a place of great trust, honour,
and antiquity. In the time of Edward III., and long
after, this officer was called keeper of the privy-seal (or
private seal) to distinguish him from the other, called
keeper of the great seal. He is appointed now by
letters patent, is a privy councillor by his office, and
takes place next after the president of the council.
He is now the fourth great officer of state, and has
the custody of the privy-seal, which he must not put
to any grant without good warrant under the royal
signet. This seal is used by the sovereign to all
charters, grants, and pardons, before they come to
the great seal ; but may also be affixed to other things
that never pass the great seal ; as, to cancel a recogniz-
ance to the crown, or to discharge a debt.
THE LORD GREAT CHAMBERLAIN.
This high office was for many successions enjoyed by
the noble family of De Vere, earls of Oxford (having
been granted to them by Henry I.), until the death of
Henry de Yere, the eighteenth earl, without issue ; when
266 Great Officers of State,
Mary, sister and heir of Edward, father of the said
Henry, having married Peregrine Bertie, Lord Wil-
loughby of Eresby, was mother by him of Eobert Lord
Willoughby of Eresby, who made claim to the earldom
of Oxford, as also to the office of lord great chamber-
lain of England ; whereupon, after much dispute, the
House of Lords gave judgment that he had made good
his claim to the office but not to the earldom (which
was decided in favour of the heir-male collateral) ; and
he was accordingly on the 22nd of November, the 2nd
of Charles I., admitted into the House of Lords with
his staff ; and his descendants continued to enjoy the
same until the death of Eobert Bertie, fourth duke of
Ancaster, marquis and earl of Lindsey, Lord Wil-
loughby of Eresby, and lord great chamberlain of
England, in 1779 ; who dying unmarried, was suc-
ceeded in the dukedom, marquisate, and earldom, by
his uncle, Lord Brownlow Bertie ; but the barony of
Willoughby fell into abeyance; and for the great
chamberlainship there were several candidates, viz. the
Lord Brownlow Bertie, then duke of Ancaster ; earl
Percy, eldest son of the duke of Northumberland ; the
duchess dowager of Athol, baroness Strange, of Knockyn,
and the ladies Priscilla Barbara, and Georgiana Char-
lotte Bertie, sisters and co-heirs of Eobert, fourth duke
of Ancaster, deceased ; when, after hearing all parties
in support of their respective pretensions, the House
of Peers desired the opinion of the twelve judges, who
gave it as their opinions, that the office devolved to the
ladies Priscilla Barbara, and Georgiana Charlotte Bertie,
as heirs to their brother the aforesaid duke Eobert, de-
ceased ; and that they had powers to appoint a deputy to
act for them, not under the degree of a knight, who, if his
and Royal Household. 267
Majesty approved of him, might officiate accordingly ;
and agreeably to this opinion, the House gave judg-
ment. Whereupon, Peter Burrell, Esq., husband of the
said Lady Priscilla Barbara, was appointed, and received
the honour of knighthood from his Majesty; after
which appointment he was created lord Gwydir.
To this officer belong very many perquisites, privi-
leges, &c., in lieu of which he usually on a coronation
receives a sum of money.
When the king or queen goes to parliament, he dis-
poses of the sword of state to be carried by what lord
he pleases, at which time he goes himself before on the
right hand of the sword, next the king or queen's per-
son, and the earl marshal on the left.
Upon all solemn occasions the keys of Westminster
Hall,* the court of wards, and the court of requests, are
delivered to him ; and the gentleman-usher of the black
rod, yeoman-usher, and the door-keepers, are then under
To him also belongs the fitting up of Westminster
Hall for a coronation, the trial of a peer, or any public
He has likewise certain fees from every archbishop
or bishop, when they do homage or fealty to the
crown : and from all peers on their creation, or doing
homage or fealty.
* By the search made by the Lord Chamberlain in the cellars
under the Parliament-house, Guy Vaux (or Faux) was discovered
268 Great Officers of State,
THE LORD HIGH CONSTABLE.
This office was for many ages held by grand serjeantry.
The lord high constable and the earl marshal were
formerly judges of the court of chivalry, called, in the
time of Henry IV., curia militaris, and after, the court
of honour. The power of the high constable was so
great, and so improper a use was oftentimes made of it,
that, so early as the 13th of Eichard II., a statute was
passed for regulating and abridging the same, together
with the power of the earl marshal. The office went
with inheritance, and by the tenure of the manors of
Harlefield, Newman, and Whitenhurst, in the county
of Gloucester,* in the family of the Bohuns, earls of
Hereford, Essex, and Northampton, and passed from
the Bohuns upon the death of Humphrey, the last earl,
to Thomas of Woodstock, duke of Gloucester; and
from him to the issue of Edmund, earl of Stafford,
whose son, Humphrey Stafford, was created duke of
Buckingham, with whose great-grandson, Edward
Stafford, duke of Buckingham, beheaded by Henry
VIII. on Tower Hill, this office terminated. It has
never since been granted to any person, otherwise than
pro tempore for a coronation, or trial by combat.f
* The castle of Caldecot, near Chepstow, in the county of Mon-
mouth, was the residence of the lord high constables of England,
and holden by them in virtue thereof.
f The only instance that occurs of a trial by combat being
ordered since the cessation of the office of lord high constable, is
between Lord Keay and David Eamsay, Esq., 28th November,
1631 : the king prevented this trial. On this occasion, Kobert
Bertie, earl of Lindsey, was appointed lord high constable.
and Eoyal Household. 269
EARL MARSHAL OF ENGLAND.
This office is of great antiquity, and is not said to
have been holden by tenure or serjeantry, as the offices
of lord steward and high constable were.
Yet, in the time of Henry I., Sir William Dugdale
recites, that Kobert de Venvis, and William de Hastings,
impleaded Gilbert Mareschall, and John his son, for
the office of mareschal* to the king, but without
success ; which John in the 10th of Henry II., being
the king's marshal, upon the difference between that
king and Thomas a Becket, archbishop of Canterbury,
laid claim for the king to one of the archbishop's
manors, which had been long enjoyed by his predeces-
sors. Unto John, son of this said John, King Henry II.
confirmed his office of marshal ; and as such, at the
coronation of Eichard I., he bore the great gilt spurs,
and afterwards died without issue. William Mareschallf
earl of Pembroke, was his brother and heir, whose five
sons successively earls of Pembroke, dying without
issue male, his five daughters became his heirs; of
whom Maude, the eldest, married Hugh Bigod, earl of
Norfolk, whose son, Roger Bigod, earl of Norfolk, after
frequent solicitations, obtained the office and honour
of marshal, in right of his mother, the 32nd of
Henry III. ; when the king solemnly gave the marshal's
* According to Camden, this office of mareschal appears to
mean the office of marshal of the king's house ; an office distinct
from that afterwards known by the name of earl marshal of
t These earls of Pembroke were oftentimes called also mare-
schals, according to Matthew Paris, and other historians ; but it
does not appear that any one had this title by creation till the
time of Kichard II., who conferred it on Thomas Mowbray, earl
Great Officers of State,
rod into her hands, in regard of her seniority in
the inheritance of the Mareschalls, earls of Pembroke,
which she thereupon delivered to Earl Eoger, her son,
whose homage the king received for the same ; but he
dying without issue, the inheritance devolved upon
Eoger, his nephew and heir, who, in the 30th of
Edward I., having no issue, constituted the king his
heir, delivered unto him the marshal's rod, upon con-
dition to be rendered back in case of having children,
and other certain terms; and, after dying without
issue, the office thereby fell into the King's hands.
Afterwards, King Edward II. granted the same unto
Thomas de Brotherton, his brother. Brotherton died,
leaving Margery, his daughter and heir, countess of
Norfolk, during whose life King Edward III. and
Eichard II. disposed of this office to divers others;
sometimes for life, sometimes during pleasure : until at
last, king Eichard II. gave it by patent to Thomas
Mowbray, earl of Nottingham, who was the grandchild
of the said Margaret, who was then created earl
marshal, being the first time that the title of earl was
affixed to the office of marshal; at the same time he
had power given that he and his successors in the
office should bear in their hands a gold truncheon,
enamelled with black at each end; at the upper end
having the king's arms engraven thereon, and at the
lower end his own arms. But, by reason of the judg-
ment given against Mowbray, duke of Norfolk, not long
before the 21st of Eichard II., this honour and office
were forfeited during his life. His posterity, however,
had them restored; which they held till the 15th of
Edward IV., when the issue male failed, and the
honour, of course, expired. But Eichard III. revived
and Eoyal Household. 271
it in Sir John Howard, son of Sir Eobert Howard, who
had married Margaret, one of the daughters and co-heirs
of the aforesaid Thomas Mowbray, earl marshal and duke
of Norfolk ; whom he also created duke of Norfolk, and
who, adhering to his master and benefactor, was slain with
him at Bosworth field. By an attainder in parliament, the
honour and office were again forfeited, and granted to
William Berkely, earl of Nottingham, in tail, who de-
ceasing soon after, issueless, Henry VIII. gave the same
for life to Henry, earl of Surrey, afterwards duke of
Norfolk, and his issue male, whence for many years it was
held for life only. King James I., at his coronation,
granted it to the earl of Worcester for that occasion,
and at other times it was executed by commission.
But at length King James I. was pleased, by letters
patent, dated 29th August, 1622, to constitute Thomas
Howard, earl of Arundel, earl marshal for life ; and
the next year (with the advice of the privy council)
granted letters patent, wherein it was declared that,
during the vacancy of the office of lord high constable
of England, the earl marshal had the like jurisdiction
in the court of chivalry, as both constable and marshal
jointly ever possessed. And on the 19th of October,
1672, King Charles II. was pleased to grant to Henry
lord Howard, and the heirs male of his body lawfully
begotten (with a long entail to divers others of the
Howard family), the office and dignity of earl marshal
of England, with power to execute the same by deputy
or deputies, in as full and ample a manner as the same
was heretofore executed by Henry Howard, late earl of
Arundel, grandfather to the said Henry lord Howard,
or by Thomas Howard, duke of Norfolk ; or by John
Mowbray, duke of Norfolk, or any other earl marshal
272 Great Officers of State,
of England, with an allowance of 20Z. each year,
payable out of the hanaper offices.
The College of Arms, commonly called the Heralds'
College, is situate on the east side of St. Bennet's Hill,
Doctors' Commons, at the south-west end of St. Paul's
Churchyard. It was destroyed by the dreadful fire in
1666, but rebuilt about three years after. It is a
spacious brick edifice, having an arched gateway in
front, leading into a handsome quadrangle. The
society was incorporated by Richard III., and consists
of thirteen members; viz. three kings-of-arms, six
heralds, and four pursuivants, all nominated by the
earl marshal, and holding their places by patent during
The kings-of-arms are styled respectively Garter,
Clarenceux, and Norroy.
Garter king-of-arms, was instituted as before men-
tioned (see Knights of the Garter, ante, p. 235,) by
King Henry V., and made sovereign of all the other
officers of arms in England. To him belongs the
correction of arms, and ensigns of arms, usurped or
borne unjustly ; and the power under warrant of the
earl marshal, of granting arms to deserving persons,
and supporters to the nobility and knights grand
crosses of the Bath.
It is the office also of Garter king-of-arms to go next
before the sword in solemn processions, none inter-
posing except the marshal; when any lord enters the
parliament chamber, it is his part to assign him his
place, according to his dignity and degree; to carry
the ensign of the order to foreign princes, and to do, or
procure to be done, what the sovereign shall enjoin,
relating to the order.
and Roijal Household. 273
Clarenceux and Norroy are the provincial kings-of-
arms; the jurisdiction of the former comprehending
all England to the south of the river Trent, and that of
Norroy all to the north of that river.
Clarenceux is thus named from the Duke of Clarence,
the third son of King Edward III.
Norroy, signifying North Roy, or North King.
The six Heralds are Windsor, Chester, Lancaster,
York, Richmond, and Somerset. They are esquires by
virtue of their office.
The four Pursuivants are denominated respectively
Rouge-croix, Blue-mantle, Rouge-dragon, and Portcullis.
The Earl Marshal has a secretary who receives fees
upon warrants, but is not ex officio a member of the
corporation. There is also a registrar, who is not
necessarily an officer of arms, though the appointment
has generally been held by one.
It is the duty of the Heralds and Pursuivants to
attend in the Public Office, one of each class together,
in monthly rotation. The general duties of the Kings,
Heralds, and Pursuivants are to attend the sovereign
on all state occasions. To publish certain royal pro-
clamations, marshal all the royal solemnities of coro-
nations, marriages, christenings, funerals, &c.
To grant coats armorial and supporters to the same,
to such as are properly authorised to bear them ; and,
where no hereditary arms are known to belong to the
person applying for a grant, they design a coat, cres/i,
&c., taking care that it shall not in any way interfere
with those already allowed or recorded.
Besides the Heralds' College at London, there is the
Lord Lyon king-of-arms for Scotland, who is second
king-of-arms for Great Britain; and also Ulster king-
27-1 Great Officers of State,
of-arms for Ireland. The officers under the former are
the Lyon depute, the Lyon clerk and Keeper of the
Eecords and his deputy, the Fiscal, the Mercer, six
Heralds Eothesay, Marchmont, Islay, Albany, Snow-
don, Ross, and six Pursuivants Dingwall, Bute,
Carrick, Ormond, Kintyre, and Unicorn. In Ulster's
office there are two Heralds, Cork and Dublin, four
Pursuivants, one only bearing a distinctive title, viz.,
Athlone, and a registrar.
LORD HIGH ADMIRAL.
The ninth great officer of state is the lord high
admiral. He has the management of all maritime affairs,
and the power of decision in all maritime cases, civil and
criminal. By him all naval officers, from an admiral
to a lieutenant, are commissioned; all deputies for
particular coasts, and judges for his court of admiralty
After the union with Scotland, Prince George of
Denmark was the first lord high admiral of Great
Britain. He died, 29th of October, 1708, and Queen
Anne acted by secretary Burchet, until November 29,
1708, when Thomas, Earl of Pembroke, was appointed
to the office, with a fee of three hundred marks per
annum ; and he seems to have been the last person in-
trusted with this high post (which since his time has been
constantly in commission), until the reign of George IV.,
when his late Majesty, William IV., then Duke of
Clarence, was constituted lord high admiral, which he
held during the administration of the late Mr. Canning.
SECRETARIES OF STATE.
The principal secretaries of state have been, by virtue
of their office, members of the privy council ever since
and Royal Household. 275
the reign of Queen Elizabeth; whereas, before, they
only prepared business for the council board. Until
towards the end of the reign of Henry VIII. there was
but one secretary of state, when his Majesty thought
fit to increase the number to two, both of equal rank
and authority. Since then, the multiplicity of public
affairs rendered necessary the addition of a third secre-
tary, and during the present reign two more have
been added, viz., secretary for war and secretary for
India. These five secretaries divide among them the
management of all foreign and domestic affairs, with
powers of the most extensive and comprehensive
THE PRIVY COUNCIL.
This noble and honourable assembly is a court of
great antiquity, composed of the most eminent persons in
the kingdom, to advise the sovereigns upon all emer-
gencies; and upon their wisdom, vigilance, courage,
and integrity, depend in a great measure the honour
and prosperity of the nation. By their advice the
crown issues proclamations, and declarations for war
and peace. All the peerage are hereditary privy coun-
cillors ; but of their number the sovereign has a select
council, commonly called the cabinet council, and
consisting of certain great officers of state (who by
virtue of their office are members of it), by whom are
determined such affairs as are most important and
LORD STEWARD OF THE HOUSEHOLD.
The chief officer for the civil government of the king's
or queen's court is the lord steward of the household.
Great Officers of State,
His authority is very great, and extends over many
other officers. He has the sole direction of the house-
hold below stairs ; is always a member of the privy
council ; and at the meeting of every new parliament
all the members must take the oaths by law appointed
before the lord steward of the household, or some one
deputed by him. He has no formal grant of his office,
but receives his charge from the sovereign in person
by delivery of a white staff or wand, the symbol of his
office. In the time of Henry VIII. his title was great
master of the king's household. But from the first of
Mary he was called magnus seneschalus hospitii regis,
or the lord high steward of the king's house.
LORD CHAMBERLAIN OF THE HOUSEHOLD.
There are two officers distinguished by the name of
chamberlain ; the one called lord great chamberlain
(already spoken of), and the other the lord chamberlain
of the household.
The last has the oversight, in the royal household,
of all the officers above stairs, except the precinct of
the bedchamber, which is under the government of the
groom of the stole. He has the supervision of the chap-
lains, although he be a layman ; also of the officers of the
standing and removing wardrobes, beds, tents, revels,
music, comedians, &c. ; of all physicians, apothecaries,
surgeons, messengers, trumpeters, drummers, tradesmen,
and artisans, retained in the royal service. To him
also belongs the oversight of the charges of coronations,
marriages, cavalcades, funerals ; of all furniture in the
parliament-house, and in the rooms for addresses to the
king or queen. He carries a white staff in his hand as
badge of his office, and wears a gold key tied with a
and Royal Household. 277
blue riband above his pocket. He is always a member
of the privy council. Under him is a vice-chamberlain,
who in his absence supplies his place.
MASTER OF THE HORSE.
The third great officer of the court is reckoned the
master of the horse, a place of honour and antiquity,
and always filled by a nobleman of the highest rank.
He has authority over the equerries, pages, coachmen,
footmen, grooms, farriers, smiths, &c. ; and appoints
all the tradesmen who work for the royal stables ; he
has also the management and disposal of all the king's
or queen's coaches, horses, pages, footmen, and attend-
ants, which are used by himself, with the royal arms
and livery ; and at any solemn cavalcade he has the
honour to ride next the king or queen.
GROOM OF THE STOLE.
This officer is first lor % d of the bedchamber, and has
the custody of the long robe or vestment worn by the
sovereign on solemn occasions, and called the stole.
He wears a gold key as the emblem of his office, and is
usually a nobleman of the highest rank. Yet there is
one instance of the office being in the hands of a
female, viz., Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough, anno
1702. in the reign of Queen Anne.
TREASURER OF THE HOUSEHOLD.
He is an officer in the lord steward's department, next
in rank to the lord steward himself. He bears a white
staff, and is a privy councillor.
278 Great Officers of State,
COMPTROLLER OF THE HOUSEHOLD,
Is the second officer under the lord high steward, and
next to the treasurer of the household. He also bears
a white staff, and is a privy councillor.
He disposes of what is termed the almonry, or royal
alms, on Maundy Thursday (the Thursday in Passion-
The charity bestowed upon this occasion, to each
lazar (or poor person) admitted to partake of this
ceremony, is woollen cloth for one suit, linen for two
shifts, six penny loaves of bread, fish in wooden
platters, a quart bottle of wine, and two red leathern
purses, one containing as many silver pennies as the
king or queen is years old, the other as many shillings
as the reign has lasted.
GENTLEMEN AT ARMS.
The honourable band of gentlemen pensioners was
first instituted by King Henry VIII., in 1539. It is now
designated the honourable corps of gentlemen at arms.
Their office is to attend the royal person upon all
occasions of public solemnities; as at court, on coro-
nations, St. George's feasts, public audiences of ambas-
sadors, at the going to parliament, royal funerals, &c.
They are properly considered as a troop of guards
attendant on the king's or queen's person. They
wait one-half at a time ; but on certain days and extra-
ordinary occasions they are all obliged to attend under
the penalty of the cheque.
Previously to the accession of King William IV.,
and Royal Household. 279
admission to this corps was attainable by persons of any
class by purchase. That sovereign, however, made
some salutary alterations, which have been still further
improved by her present Majesty, and the corps is now
strictly composed of gentlemen, the majority of them
having held rank in the army.
The officers of the corps consist of the captain
(generally a nobleman), a lieutenant, standard-bearer,
and a clerk of the cheque.
YEOMEN OF THE GUARD.
These were first instituted by King Henry VII., anno
1486, as a body-guard to him, and their number at
that time was fifty men ; but they have since undergone
several alterations, and their present establishment is
100. Eight of them are styled ushers, four superan-
nuated yeomen, six yeomen hangers, two yeomen bed-
goers. Their officers are a captain, who is generally a
nobleman, a lieutenant, an ensign, a clerk of the cheque,
and four exons.
On all occasions of great solemnities, or the sove-
reign's going publicly in state by land or water, they
attend. Their dress, by gradual alteration, has at
length become a conventional costume composed of a
coat of the fashion of the reign of William III., a hat of
the period of Charles II., and a ruff of the time of
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23 An introduction to heraldry
C53 18th ed.
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